For semi-compatibilists, the control required for moral responsibility constitutes having certain reasons, including pro tanto reasons, that causally determine our actions in an appropriate way.
For Haji, it is not clear whether a genuine objective pro tanto reason would cease to be a pro tanto reason if a neo-Frankfurt-style case device was present.
In spite of this, it is uncontroversially true that this book presents a rigorous, original, and well-thought out argument against semi-compatibilism; pro tanto reasons of the kind it is generally accepted are necessary for moral responsibility require alternate possibilities--free will--either strong alternatives of the kind incompatible with determinism, or weak alternatives of the kind compatibilists sometimes advocate.
Weaker Locative Analysis: G is non-instrumentally good for X if and only if (i) G is pro tanto non-instrumentally good, (ii) G has properties that generate, or would generate, agent-relative reasons for X to desire G for its own sake, (iii) G is essentially related to X.
For I assume that those who think that bad things can be good for people hold that there is something pro tanto good about such pleasures.
For if something is pro tanto good in one respect and pro tanto bad in another (and meets the other conditions of the analysis) then the weaker analysis delivers the verdict that this is both good for and bad for the subject.
In sum, it seems that there is a strong pro tanto moral argument along the lines above for extensive free speech from a concern for overall welfare.
So, equal respect for members of the minority in this situation calls for unequal treatment according to the multiculturalist and even though unequal treatment is pro tanto an evil--granting my point above--this particular evil is the lesser of two evils in a dilemma.
AmClyde,(66) the Supreme Court analyzed three different approaches to resolving the consequences of a partial settlement in joint and several liability cases: 1) reduce the total liability of nonsettling parties by the amount of the partial settlement (commonly called a pro tanto reduction), but allow nonsettling parties to retain contribution rights to recover excessive judgments against them; 2) reduce the liability of nonsettling parties pro tanto, while denying nonsettling parties contribution rights; and 3) reduce the liability of nonsettling parties by the amount of the settling parties' equitable share of responsibility.
The Court adopted the proportionate share rule of option three and harshly criticized the unfairness of option two, which, like CERCLA, reduces nonsettling parties liability pro tanto and bars contribution claims.
Moreover, the Court recognized that the pro tanto approach would transform settlements into a coercive, unfair process.
We know enough thus far to suspect that charging expenses to the marital gift corpus is not going to be the most tax effective technique, because of the pro tanto
reduction in the marital deduction and correlative pro tanto
increase in the taxable estate.