(redirected from pro)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Acronyms, Idioms, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.


a social grouping designed to achieve certain goals. In the modern world much of the provision of goods and services is undertaken by organizations, and they are the main providers of paid employment. The core features of the modern organization were outlined by Max Weber (1864-1920) in his analysis of BUREAUCRACY. In his view the bureaucratic organization was the dominant mode of organization in modern industrial societies. Organizations of this sort are often also called formal organizations since they exist independently of the individuals who belong to them at any given time, and the roles and activities of organization members are formally prescribed at least to some extent. Informal organization, by contrast, is where the differentiation of roles (for example leader, follower) is not formally specified and where roles emerge naturally Small GROUPS are often referred to as informal organizations. They can be a source of difficulty within formal organizations because their respective roles and goals may conflict.

All formal organizations have a structure of roles and a set of arrangements to achieve the organization's objectives. This is known as the organization's design. It embraces the distribution of tasks that organization members perform and the mechanisms of coordination and control. Design is thus more than the simple lines of AUTHORITY and ACCOUNTABILITY shown in the ORGANIZATION CHART. In ORGANIZATIONAL ANALYSIS three dimensions of structure are usually seen as fundamental:

  1. centralization: the number of levels in the HIERARCHY and the extent to which decisions are taken at the top of the organization;
  2. specialization: the extent to which the total activities of the organization are broken down into specialized jobs for individuals. See JOB DESIGN AND REDESIGN;
  3. standardization: the extent to which the conduct of activities necessary to achieve the organization's goals are controlled and coordinated by standard, written rules.

Organizations differ along these dimensions. Small dynamic organizations in high growth sectors are often characterized by low centralization, specialization and standardization; by contrast, public administration often exhibits the opposite (see MECHANISTIC AND ORGANISMIC ORGANIZATIONS). See WORK ORGANIZATION, ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE, PRODUCT-BASED STRUCTURE, FUNCTIONAL STRUCTURE, MATRIX STRUCTURE, H-FORM, TALL ORGANIZATION, FLAT ORGANIZATION.


the structure of authority or power within a FIRM or public body. Generally, there will be a number of management levels in an organization, with a chief executive at the top of the pyramid-shaped organization and increasing numbers of senior, middle and junior managers further down the hierarchy, operatives, sales people and clerks forming the base of the pyramid. Lines of authority are established by the organization's structure, with orders being transmitted downwards in increasing detail and information feedback being transmitted upwards.

In the traditional THEORY OF THE FIRM, such organizational details are ignored, the firm being portrayed as a simple decisionmaking unit that responds exactly to orders initiated by its controlling ENTREPRENEUR. In practice, the structure and operations of large, complex organizations themselves will affect the decision-making process and the specification of organization objectives. See ORGANIZATION THEORY, BEHAVIOURAL THEORY OF THE FIRM, MFORM ORGANIZATION, U FORM ORGANIZATION, CORPORATE RE-ENGINEERING.

References in periodicals archive ?
Lee Elder * Born July 14, 1934 in Dallas, Texas; turned pro in 1959 and joined PGA Tour in 1967; won the 1974 Monsanto Open to become the first African-American to qualify for the Masters; won $1,020,514 in official PGA Tour earnings.
The RADEON 9800 PRO graphics card was specifically designed to accommodate the special USB, power routing and dual flat panel display requirements of the new Power Mac G5 systems, including ADC and DVI connectors.
95 with a docking adapter), the REX PRO is an interesting alternative to the Palm Pilot, if what you're looking for is a very compact data management device.
Overall, I think Final Cut Pro Foundations is an excellent DVD for beginners .
Pro Mach has a diverse customer base, from Fortune 200 companies to smaller, privately-held businesses worldwide, which depend on reliable, flexible, technologically advanced packaging equipment and integrated solution sets.
We have crafted these service offerings to meet the changing needs of clinical trial sponsors, and to give them confidence in their PRO data collection methods throughout their drug development efforts," said Bob Young, president of PRO Consulting and senior vice president of sales and marketing at invivodata.
A special edition of the Journal of Pricing and Revenue Management was published composed wholly of papers authored by PROS employees.
Product User Council sessions were held; these Councils provide a forum that allows pricing users and managers alike to share knowledge and experiences, stay abreast of pricing excellence practices, and review updates to the PROS product roadmap.
According to Elliott Williams, PROS' Director of Product Management, "This PROS Pricing User Council will review high value business cases and map PROS solutions directly to them.
PROS is headquartered in Houston, TX, and has professional staff permanently based in London; Singapore; Seoul; Vancouver; San Francisco, CA; and Austin, TX.
PROS is headquartered in Houston, TX, and has satellite offices located in Frankfurt; Hong Kong; Singapore; Dubai; London; Seoul; Vancouver; San Francisco, CA; and Austin, TX.