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The norms and shared attitudes that pervade an ORGANIZATION. It may be expressed in symbols, rituals and the language used by organization members. It thus constitutes the distinctive characteristics of an organization. In recent years managerial interest in organizational culture has grown enormously It is believed that the culture will influence how individuals behave at work and hence will affect both individual and organizational performances.

A number of types of culture have been identified in this respect:

  1. power culture, characterized by an emphasis on personal charisma, risk-taking and a low level of respect for procedures. This might be found in a small entrepreneurial organization, where power tends to be concentrated in the entrepreneur;
  2. rôle culture, characterized by well-defined procedures and job roles, and an emphasis on conformity. This might be found in an established BUREAUCRACY for example government administration;
  3. task culture, characterized by an emphasis on problem-solving by expert teams. Groups are formed to deal with particular problems. Once the task is completed the group may be disbanded. Here the culture is one which attaches importance to expertise, though in fact expertise may be less developed in organizations of this sort than in role culture organizations, where job roles are more specialized. Task culture places a much greater emphasis on flexibility and creativity than does role culture;
  4. person-oriented culture, characterized by an emphasis on meeting the needs of individuals in the organization. This is often found in small, ‘alternative’ organizations. It may also characterize small organizations composed mainly of PROFESSIONALS, such as small consultancy companies, where it is deemed important that individuals be given some freedom to shape their jobs so that they can pursue particular professional or other ‘acceptable’ outside interests (for example, being a local councillor).

A concern of many managers in recent years has been that the prevailing culture of their organization is inappropriate, or even obstructive, to a desired change in objectives. For instance, a role culture, where jobs are specialized and well-defined, could obstruct creativity and hence prevent an organization from becoming more entrepreneurial. As a result much attention recently has been devoted to changing cultures. It is doubtful, however, whether managers can actually achieve dramatic cultural change in the short term. Culture is influenced by a complex of factors, such as the character and background of the workforce, many of which are to some extent independent of managerial action. See MANAGEMENT STYLE. MECHANISTIC AND ORGANISMIC, EXCELLENCE CULTURE.

Collins Dictionary of Business, 3rd ed. © 2002, 2005 C Pass, B Lowes, A Pendleton, L Chadwick, D O’Reilly and M Afferson
References in periodicals archive ?
Transfusion of platelets is more likely to result in sepsis than is transfusion of other blood products; data derived from primary cultures have indicated that approximately one in every 5,000 platelet collections is contaminated with bacteria (2).
(2013) reported in their primary culture that, cell proliferation from the explants was very slow and it took almost one year to cover the whole area of the culture flask.
The endometrial tissue samples used for the primary culture were removed and transported immediately to the laboratory.
Three days after primary culture some single cells begun to form small spheres and the most of adhesive cells attached to the bottom of flasks and the confluency of suspended cells decreased (Fig 1B).
We present a systematic review of the available in vitro and ex vivo assays for retinal angiogenesis study, highlighting the following: (1) the cell lines and primary cultures of endothelial cells (ECs) used or the ex vivo models applied; (2) the sequential events of angiogenesis and the most appropriate methods to study the several aspects of the process; and (3) the applicability, advantages, limitations, and disadvantages of each method.
Two groups of colonized cells with different morphology were visible in primary culture. Some colonies were compact and round which were similar to endometrial epithelial cells colony and the others were stromal cells.
Primary Culture of Preadipocytes, Growth Characteristics after Passage, and Morphological Observation.
In this study, the primary culture of trophoblasts was done by culturing of hatching/hatched blastocysts on feeder cells, which were either mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) or, for the first time, porcine granulosa cells (PGCs).
A cellular model based on primary culture of human aortic cells has been developed for screening of substances with anti-atherosclerotic potential.
Effect of DEHP [di-(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate] on lipid peroxidation in liver in rats and in primary culture of rat hepatocytes.
Day after the primary culture, the spindle shaped fibroblast cells were observed and the non-adherent/dead cells were removed by changing the medium.

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