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The norms and shared attitudes that pervade an ORGANIZATION. It may be expressed in symbols, rituals and the language used by organization members. It thus constitutes the distinctive characteristics of an organization. In recent years managerial interest in organizational culture has grown enormously It is believed that the culture will influence how individuals behave at work and hence will affect both individual and organizational performances.

A number of types of culture have been identified in this respect:

  1. power culture, characterized by an emphasis on personal charisma, risk-taking and a low level of respect for procedures. This might be found in a small entrepreneurial organization, where power tends to be concentrated in the entrepreneur;
  2. rôle culture, characterized by well-defined procedures and job roles, and an emphasis on conformity. This might be found in an established BUREAUCRACY for example government administration;
  3. task culture, characterized by an emphasis on problem-solving by expert teams. Groups are formed to deal with particular problems. Once the task is completed the group may be disbanded. Here the culture is one which attaches importance to expertise, though in fact expertise may be less developed in organizations of this sort than in role culture organizations, where job roles are more specialized. Task culture places a much greater emphasis on flexibility and creativity than does role culture;
  4. person-oriented culture, characterized by an emphasis on meeting the needs of individuals in the organization. This is often found in small, ‘alternative’ organizations. It may also characterize small organizations composed mainly of PROFESSIONALS, such as small consultancy companies, where it is deemed important that individuals be given some freedom to shape their jobs so that they can pursue particular professional or other ‘acceptable’ outside interests (for example, being a local councillor).

A concern of many managers in recent years has been that the prevailing culture of their organization is inappropriate, or even obstructive, to a desired change in objectives. For instance, a role culture, where jobs are specialized and well-defined, could obstruct creativity and hence prevent an organization from becoming more entrepreneurial. As a result much attention recently has been devoted to changing cultures. It is doubtful, however, whether managers can actually achieve dramatic cultural change in the short term. Culture is influenced by a complex of factors, such as the character and background of the workforce, many of which are to some extent independent of managerial action. See MANAGEMENT STYLE. MECHANISTIC AND ORGANISMIC, EXCELLENCE CULTURE.

References in periodicals archive ?
Expression of transforming growth factor-beta 1, vascular endothelial growth factor, and hypoxia-inducible factor-1a in primary culture of endometrial tissue with different stimuli
Gap junctional communication in primary culture of cells derived from human aortic intima.
This colony was removed from the primary culture plate and cultured on the secondary culture plates as the pour plate.
The adhesion capacity of the isolated fungi (mycelium and spores) to primary cultures of shrimp tissues and hemocytes was estimated following the procedure described by Guzman-Murillo & Ascencio (2001).
For presumptive identification of bacterial species by colony characteristics on primary culture plate of 199 bacterial isolates 194 (97.
Use of goat serum as a substitute for calf serum for growing various primary cultures from vertebrates.
6] cells in digested cell suspension, primary culture in DMEM-F12 with 10% FBS for overnight and transfer the suspended cells to specific human spermatogonial stem cells culture system, prevented disturbing influences of somatic cells over growth in SFM media.
Estrogen synthetase (Aromatase) activity in primary culture of human term placental cells: Effects of cell preparation, growth medium, and serum on adenosine 3', 5'-Monophosphate response.
Renal proximal tubular cells in suspension or in primary culture as in vitro models to study nephrotoxicity.
The change in dendrite arborization of the Purkinje cell in primary culture of newborn rat cerebellum was also examined.
In today's fluid battlefield, not only is understanding the primary culture and subcultures that exist within your AOR important, but the ability to apply and integrate this knowledge into mission planning and daily operations is critical to mission success.
Ga 14-gene-dependent alterations of embryo development and cell growth in primary culture of sea urchins.

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