(2016) Mirror Neurons in Monkey Premotor Area
F5 Show Tuning for Critical Features of Visual Causality Perception.
Along the same lines, Tremblay and Small  showed that functional specialization of specific premotor areas
is involved in both action observation and execution.
In premotor areas
, movements typically start when the neural activity reaches a threshold, although it is still unclear how this threshold is determined .
Some studies have pointed to Broca's area as the human homolog of the monkey's premotor area
In contrast to the baseline condition, at posttreatment, a different brain activation pattern emerged; that is, mitigation of spasticity was associated with enhanced activation in contralesional primary and premotor areas
. One explanation of these differences could be that therapy-generated reduction in spasticity may be driven by changes in brain networks unique from maladaptive mechanisms producing the onset of spasticity after stroke.
They are represented by: the main motor area (area 4 Brodmann), the supplementary motor area, the premotor area
, frontal optical area;
The frontal lobe contains the premotor area
(planning and executing movements) and the prefrontal area.
Note: PMA= Premotor area
, SMA= supplementary motor area, SPA= superior parietal area, MD= medial deltoid, ECR= extensor carpi radialis, MEP = Motor evoked potential, TMS = Transcranial magnetic stimulation, FDI = First dorsal interosseus, yrs= years, hrs= hours, MRI= Magnetic Resonance Imaging, fMRI= Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, EEG = Electroencephalography, secs= seconds, mins=minutes Table 3.
Giacomo Rizzolatti first discovered these remarkable cells in the F5 premotor area
of macaque monkeys in the 1990s.
Other activation gains were seen in the lesioned side premotor area
, whereas changes in laterality of the premotor and SMAs were not significant.
So it was unexpected when in 1992 that Giacomo Rizzolatti and colleagues of Parma University (1992) found that certain neurons in a part of the motor cortex, the F5 inferior premotor area
, had a role in perception.