But Belting overstates the contrasting monolithic quality of traditional art history, since one can find a level of alterity even in the writings of the old guard--Aby Warburg, on the Pueblo Indians, say, or Riegl, in positing
a history of ornament against the materialist assumption that it must, as decoration, be a universal answer to a timeless human need.
Citing the 1478 Treviso Arithmetic, Giorlamo and Giovanntonio (sic) Tagliente's 1548 Libro d'abaco, Robert Recorde's 1542 Grounde of Artes, and Raphael Bombelli's 1572 Algebra, Jaffe speculates: "In the wake of zero, the quest for mathematical knowledge comes to revolve around the positing
of impossible fictions that stand for value, count for it, are counterfeits.
Miller perhaps goes too far in positing
the role of author as "a perpetually alternative venue for 'changing the subject'" (143); however, she presents a persuasive case for the decisive role of gendered audience response.
On an inter- national level in the developments towards Documenta 11 among a number of initiatives, a highly speculative debate is taking form, positing
alterity, inclusivity and highly romantic notions of the local as sole counternarratives for a specific model of Western exciusionism.
This "mistake" is the result of the influence that pictures have had on philosophers' notions of mental representation: "Their sole reason for positing
such images [images that are conveyed intact from the senses to the brain] was that they saw how easily a picture can stimulate our mind to conceive the objects depicted in it, and so it seemed to them that, in the same way, the mind must be stimulated, by little pictures formed in our head, to conceive objects that affect our senses."(18)
the metronome as the performer of the concert (the pendulum weights were set so that each beat at a different speed), the work inverted the normal functions and roles of practical aids and musical instruments.