pluralism

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pluralism

a diffusion of power and interests in a society or ORGANIZATION, such that there is a plurality of interest groups. Those who subscribe to pluralism argue that there will inevitably be differences between individuals or groups in any complex social institution over, for instance, the distribution of rewards.

Pluralists claim that it is better to accept these differences than to suppress them, because once they are brought into the open it is possible to find mechanisms for resolving potential conflict to the benefit of all. In INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS the pluralist frame of reference is held by those who believe that the interests of management and workers will inevitably differ on occasions, for example over the size of an annual pay increase. They argue that it is better to accept that TRADE UNIONS are the legitimate expressions of employee interests rather than to refuse recognition on the grounds that employer-employee interests are identical. If the latter policy is adopted CONFLICT may break out without warning and with no acceptable means of resolving it. If, on the other hand, unions are recognized then management and unions can work together to devise procedures (for example GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES) that will prevent differences of interest from developing into open conflict and provide a means of resolving conflict if it should occur. See MANAGEMENT STYLE.

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Where formal and customary law coexist pluralistically, custom has proved the more flexible of the two and may be invoked to unite customary and formal land holding.
In my reading, the alleged ambiguity of the Dalai Lama's virtue ethics is in fact characteristically Buddhist in that it pluralistically addresses a variety of agents in diverse contexts, at different stages of moral development and with distinct levels of commitment.
Imminent naturalists' recognition of their own faith will allow them to form coalitions with pluralistically inclined believers.
A third critical systems tradition deals with the methodological limitations and inevitable problems of selectivity in thinking holistically and interconnectedly, and being pluralistically multiverse.
In politics, especially, which is often a discourse of confrontation and battle, how likely is dissociation of concepts to be used pluralistically, versus agonistically?
88) It can, however, avoid unnecessary constraints that prejudge, marginalize, bias, and prioritize, reproducing approaches to the discipline that do not reflect the legitimacy and consensus derived from people and everyday lives, which any organization or institution should democratically and pluralistically reflect and guarantee.
Rather than viewing intelligence as a monolithic entity, Gardner (1999) argued that intelligence is best viewed pluralistically (e.
6) Nonetheless, despite examples of biological racism--the belief that race was an innate genetic quality--most settlement houses advocated a definition of "race" that, in line with the liberal sociologists of the era, considered it to be a cultural and contingent category of identity that would yield to and eventually allow for assimilation into a pluralistically American culture.
However, the fact that a country has held elections does not imply that it acts entirely democratically or pluralistically.
Monitoring is best done pluralistically by transnational civil society, whereas the sanctions aspects of accountability are more effectively carried out by legislatures.
To date, the findings of this review suggest that participating students improved their analytical skills, cultural awareness, and ability to think pluralistically and take the perspective of others (Hurtado, 2005).
In his proposal, Blacks would operate pluralistically to build multiple alliances as individual and "sub" group interests require.