pluralism

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pluralism

a diffusion of power and interests in a society or ORGANIZATION, such that there is a plurality of interest groups. Those who subscribe to pluralism argue that there will inevitably be differences between individuals or groups in any complex social institution over, for instance, the distribution of rewards.

Pluralists claim that it is better to accept these differences than to suppress them, because once they are brought into the open it is possible to find mechanisms for resolving potential conflict to the benefit of all. In INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS the pluralist frame of reference is held by those who believe that the interests of management and workers will inevitably differ on occasions, for example over the size of an annual pay increase. They argue that it is better to accept that TRADE UNIONS are the legitimate expressions of employee interests rather than to refuse recognition on the grounds that employer-employee interests are identical. If the latter policy is adopted CONFLICT may break out without warning and with no acceptable means of resolving it. If, on the other hand, unions are recognized then management and unions can work together to devise procedures (for example GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES) that will prevent differences of interest from developing into open conflict and provide a means of resolving conflict if it should occur. See MANAGEMENT STYLE.

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More thought needs to be given to this, however, at present we suggest that ontological arguments for pluralism are problematic insofar as they make claims about social reality that are unmediated by transcendental arguments.
Epistemological arguments for paradigm pluralism are premised on either human fallibility (cf.
For sceptics, paradigm pluralism is effectively a default position rather than a positive or desirable state of affairs, given their in principle refusal to rule out any paradigm on methodological grounds.
Given these problems with scepticism, epistemological arguments for paradigm pluralism are more plausibly based on fallibilism.
involve mapping, or describing, a religious terrain marked by increasing religious diversity that is often attributed to the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 and described as a "new" plurality or pluralism. In these studies, the term "religious pluralism" is often used to refer to plurality or religious diversity, thus seeming to function as a descriptive term.
They recognize the politics embedded in the dynamics of religious diversity that pluralism works to represent.
In his important text on the history of religious pluralism in the U.S., Hutchison identified three major stages of pluralism.
Along these lines, Hutchison also argued that this participatory pluralism is a core value of liberal democracy: If pluralism has seemed inadequate as a unifying ideal, that may be because our civic and religious rhetoric has proclaimed it so inadequately-so thinly and defensively--when the pluralist ideal has been proclaimed at all.
Different methodological principles or epistemic values can give rise to forms of pluralism. So, although perhaps united in their opposition to monism, many pluralist stances seem to have little else in common.
My standpoint is that of an English jurist who is concerned about the somewhat disorderly proliferation of literature and perspectives on legal pluralism in the wake of the growing interest in so-called "globalization." My aim is to suggest a way into this confusing literature and to demystify at least some aspects of the issues.
If one treats legal pluralism as a species of normative pluralism, it is helpful to start with the wider category.
(3) We all encounter normative pluralism every day of our lives.