As establishment of normal pregnancy reference ranges appears imminent, clinical laboratory scientists may do well to consider the total plasma volume
(differences) between normal pregnant and PE patients that result in hemodilution and relative hemoconcentration.
changes in middle-aged male and female subjects during marathon running.
The role of osmolality and plasma volume
during rehydration in humans.
Intracellular fluid moves into the plasma and extracellular fluid spaces resulting in the contraction of the intracellular compartments and restoration of plasma volume
. As a result, signs and symptoms of hypovolemic shock may not be present; however, membrane excitability and cardiac contractility are affected by altered plasma calcium and potassium levels.
To determine if heat acclimation changed the physiology of the time trial performance at room temperature, data from the performance trials were used to create difference scores for the mean change in core temperature, arterial oxygen saturation, plasma volume
shifts, and heart rate between the heat condition and the neutral condition.
It could be thought that the difference in cardiac output change may also be caused by decreased plasma volume
in subjects with postural hypotension.
decreased in both the horizontal and pendent arm during exercise.
 In one of the studies carried out in Germany, results showed that for brief exercise duration and low-intensity training programs, the red cell mass remained constant and only short-term shift in the plasma volume
was observed whereas endurance-trained athletes showed an increase in hemoglobin concentration and RBC count.
Instruments that utilize a predilution step assume a normal ratio exists between the plasma water volume and the total plasma volume
However the loss of ECF volume causes depletion of plasma volume
(hypovolaemia) and a drop in blood pressure.
Although use of crystalloids (or) colloids for plasma volume
is controversy; colloids are usually given to prevent and treat Hypovolemia.
Eight hemodialysis facilities were assigned to the education-only technique and seven to the education plus relative plasma volume