In confinement rearing system, average time spent in feather pecking was recorded 7.98% while time budget for feather pecking was 6.23% for the birds reared under free-range rearing system (Table III).
Birds spent maximum time 29.63% in litter pecking during 5th month of age in confinement rearing system (Table II).
Comparisons of damaging feather pecking and time budgets in male and female turkeys of a traditional breed and a genetically selected male line.
Effects of four different environmental enrichment treatments on pecking behaviour in turkeys.
The distinction between surpluses, normal deficits, and large deficits appears to explain both pecking order puzzles.
We corroborate their findings with regard to the effect of the debt capacity; the pecking order model performs worse for firms with smaller debt capacities.
In Section I, we present the pecking order model and its empirical implications.
This section describes some of the empirical and theoretical studies on the pecking order theory and explains how our paper relates to these studies.
The peak force (measured in grams) of a bird pecking at the food was recorded during the first 3 min after being placed in the cage.
Pecking behaviour and peak pecking force (measured in grams) at a red disc attached to the pressure transducer were measured.
The effects of beak trimming on feeding and pecking behaviour of pullets were analysed using an analysis of variance procedure (using Base-SAS[R] software, 1988) for each age group separately.
When tested at 60 weeks, feeding and pecking behaviours were similar for all treatment groups (Table 1).