Mild dysplasia of HBP mucosa of G3 exhibited nuclear immunostaining of basal and parabasal cells
. Severe dysplasia of HBP mucosa of G4 showed nuclear immunostaining of basal and higher levels of spinous cells while SCC showed nuclear staining of spinous cells and invasive islands.
For example, the mean nuclear dimensions of normal parabasal cells
appeared to be higher than nuclear dimensions in some abnormal smears like ASCUS and LSIL.
The parabasal cells
, with a high nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio were clearly shown in clusters with the use of methylene blue when compared with the toluidine blue.
No difference in the vaginal maturation index was noted between groups; however, improved numbers of parabasal cells
were found in participants in the laser treatment arms.
The number of intermediate and parabasal cells
decreased significantly in the fennel group as compared to the control group.
are considered a sign of severe epithelial inflammation encountered only in moderate or severe forms of AV such as in desquamative inflammatory vaginitis (12).
According to the company, Intrarosa contains prasterone, an inactive endogenous steroid, which is converted locally in the vagina into androgens and estrogens to help restore the vaginal tissue, improvements in the percentage of superficial cells, parabasal cells
, pH as well as pain with intercourse.
Data from vaginal smears showed that the TSEC significantly increased the number of superficial and intermediate cells while decreasing the percentage of parabasal cells
, which displays an estrogen-like action that can improve menopausal vaginal atrophy.
(4) We measured VMI at baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment and found a significant improvement in both superficial and parabasal cells
of the vagina.
The results demonstrated that daily intravaginal administration of Prasterone shown clinically and highly statistically significant improvements on the four co-primary parameters: pain at sexual activity (dyspareunia), percentage of parabasal cells
, percentage of superficial cells and vaginal pH (markers for restoring a more health vaginal environment, similar to a pre-menopausal vaginal environment).
The labelling index (LI) was counted by counting the number of positive cells per 100 basal or parabasal cells
and was recorded as percentage.