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Related to Pain management: Chronic pain, Pain killers, Pain medication


The people who administer a company, create policies, and provide the support necessary to implement the owners' business objectives.


1. The persons or institutions that administer a company. That is, management has the responsibility to direct employees, set and enforce policies, and generally ensure that the company fulfills its goals (which management itself often sets). Management is responsible to the board of directors (of a publicly-traded company) and ultimately to the company's owners. In small companies, owners and managers are often the same people.

2. See: Asset management.


The process of organizing and directing human and physical resources within an ORGANIZATION so as to meet defined objectives. The key management roles are:
  1. planning how to carry out the various activities which are required to achieve the objective. This involves establishing an action programme (see BUSINESS PLAN) and an appropriate organization structure within which tasks can be subdivided (for example into production, personnel, marketing and finance); RESPONSIBILITY for them delegated; and PAY and reward systems instituted (see JOB DESIGN AND REDESIGN, WORK ORGANIZATION);
  2. CONTROL, by comparing current performance with that planned in order to monitor progress of the work. Such comparisons reveal where additional resources may be needed to achieve desired performance or when plans may need to be modified in the light of experience;
  3. COORDINATION of the tasks being undertaken, which involves synchronizing and balancing work loads and ensuring effective collaboration between the various DEPARTMENTS and GROUPS within the organization;
  4. MOTIVATION of the members of the organization, encouraging them to work effectively in performing their assigned task.

CLASSICAL MANAGEMENT THEORY portrayed management as a rational activity largely concerned with establishing routines and procedures for administering the work. More recently this emphasis has been questioned in a number of respects. Research has shown that much of the manager's working day is spent on tasks other than those suggested in this approach, for example attending retirement presentations, responding to telephone enquiries etc. Much of the manager's job involves ad hoc reactions to events. Other research has shown that managers ‘muddle through’, aiming at achieving satisfactory rather than optimum outcomes (see SATISFICING).

Recent writing on management has emphasized the LEADERSHIP aspect of the managerial function. The key issue here concerns the means by which managers can achieve effective performance from their subordinates. Two basic approaches are identified in the literature (on MANAGEMENT STYLE):

  1. task orientation, where managers' relationship with their subordinates is essentially directive, being primarily focused on getting the job done;
  2. people orientation, where managers show a greater concern for their subordinates' well-being, on the grounds that a contented workforce performs effectively.

Some believe that good leaders are born with certain personal qualities whilst others believe that these can be instilled through MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT. Whatever perspective is taken it should be remembered that leadership involves more than a leader: it also involves subordinates and a context. Good leadership is that which produces appropriate behaviour from others in particular situations. See ORGANIZATIONAL ANALYSIS, BOARD OF DIRECTORS.

References in periodicals archive ?
In their study, a blinded interviewer called a prospective cohort of 476 persons 48 hours after emergency room discharge to ask if providers made it clear pain management was important and the patient should report any pain.
However, the increasing concerns regarding the risk associated with the implantation of pain management devices are holding people back from adopting them, limiting their growth to some extent.
As of 2015, the global pain management devices market was dominated by Medtronic plc (Ireland), St.
Amjad Iqbal said that College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan has approved FCPS in pain management as subspecialty of anaesthesia.
A concern for CRNAs is that several of the procedures listed are common in acute pain management and everyday surgical procedures, as well as obstetrical care.
Ultimately pain management determines the exact source of the pain and the most effective treatment, the expert said.
supports legislative and regulatory authority for APRNs to prescribe controlled substances and for registered nurses to appropriately prescribe pain management strategies and/or administer controlled substances to mitigate intractable end of life pain
Pain management is so patient- and prescriber specific that it frequently defies a uniform approach.
This is probably one of the fastest growing areas of pain management.
The dynamic tension between inadequately medicating patients suffering from chronic pain and the need to control illegal narcotic availability has put pain management in the forefront of medicine and law.
he was concerned about staff misconceptions about pain management and treatment, and that staffers were reacting to pain rather than being proactive.
Experts cite many reasons for the failings in end-of-life care: doctors with little training or experience in pain management and caring for dying patients; the high turnover and shortage of nurses in nursing homes; a system with financial incentives to continue skilled nursing and rehabilitative services; and a cultural squeamishness toward death that keeps people from discussing with family members and primary care doctors what they would want should a medical crisis occur.