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a social grouping designed to achieve certain goals. In the modern world much of the provision of goods and services is undertaken by organizations, and they are the main providers of paid employment. The core features of the modern organization were outlined by Max Weber (1864-1920) in his analysis of BUREAUCRACY. In his view the bureaucratic organization was the dominant mode of organization in modern industrial societies. Organizations of this sort are often also called formal organizations since they exist independently of the individuals who belong to them at any given time, and the roles and activities of organization members are formally prescribed at least to some extent. Informal organization, by contrast, is where the differentiation of roles (for example leader, follower) is not formally specified and where roles emerge naturally Small GROUPS are often referred to as informal organizations. They can be a source of difficulty within formal organizations because their respective roles and goals may conflict.

All formal organizations have a structure of roles and a set of arrangements to achieve the organization's objectives. This is known as the organization's design. It embraces the distribution of tasks that organization members perform and the mechanisms of coordination and control. Design is thus more than the simple lines of AUTHORITY and ACCOUNTABILITY shown in the ORGANIZATION CHART. In ORGANIZATIONAL ANALYSIS three dimensions of structure are usually seen as fundamental:

  1. centralization: the number of levels in the HIERARCHY and the extent to which decisions are taken at the top of the organization;
  2. specialization: the extent to which the total activities of the organization are broken down into specialized jobs for individuals. See JOB DESIGN AND REDESIGN;
  3. standardization: the extent to which the conduct of activities necessary to achieve the organization's goals are controlled and coordinated by standard, written rules.

Organizations differ along these dimensions. Small dynamic organizations in high growth sectors are often characterized by low centralization, specialization and standardization; by contrast, public administration often exhibits the opposite (see MECHANISTIC AND ORGANISMIC ORGANIZATIONS). See WORK ORGANIZATION, ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE, PRODUCT-BASED STRUCTURE, FUNCTIONAL STRUCTURE, MATRIX STRUCTURE, H-FORM, TALL ORGANIZATION, FLAT ORGANIZATION.


the structure of authority or power within a FIRM or public body. Generally, there will be a number of management levels in an organization, with a chief executive at the top of the pyramid-shaped organization and increasing numbers of senior, middle and junior managers further down the hierarchy, operatives, sales people and clerks forming the base of the pyramid. Lines of authority are established by the organization's structure, with orders being transmitted downwards in increasing detail and information feedback being transmitted upwards.

In the traditional THEORY OF THE FIRM, such organizational details are ignored, the firm being portrayed as a simple decisionmaking unit that responds exactly to orders initiated by its controlling ENTREPRENEUR. In practice, the structure and operations of large, complex organizations themselves will affect the decision-making process and the specification of organization objectives. See ORGANIZATION THEORY, BEHAVIOURAL THEORY OF THE FIRM, MFORM ORGANIZATION, U FORM ORGANIZATION, CORPORATE RE-ENGINEERING.

References in periodicals archive ?
I've had the opportunity to serve on both sides of the EAP and coaching worlds as well as conduct research into organizationally based coaching over the past decade.
The present study tends to provide some empirical evidence on differences or similarities between an individualist culture like Canada and a collectivist culture like Pakistan with regard to quality of work and nonwork life experiences of self-employed and organizationally employed individuals.
Although the US military is well organized for conventional force-on- force engagements, Stringer (a graduate of the US Army Command and General Staff College) argues that it is note organizationally prepared for military operations other than war "in places like Grozny, Falluja, New Orleans, and New York City.
ICDI also began to employ more staff (up from 5 to 8) as it grew organizationally.
Is located organizationally outside the staff or line management function of the unit under audit (the Naval Audit Service is part of the Secretary of the Navy staff).
Onyx is expected to operate organizationally as a business unit of its sister company, Made2Manage Systems, which houses several enterprise resource planning (ERP)-based product lines.
In Russia, Denmark, and France, where ballet was well established and publicly subsidized before the 20th century, men continued to dominate artistically and organizationally.
The CSCC organizationally is made up of members from both U.
The Community College League had set out to solve a long-standing problem of the college districts--sharing critical documents and information across a geographically and organizationally diverse groups of people and districts.
Really not a lot going on organizationally or thematically, just a bunch of photos of raw skating and other rand acts of randomness.
She was successful, and the department is now one of our most stable both financially and organizationally," Denham says.

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