56% There are clear and uniform standards of right
and wrong by which everyone should be judged.
At the founding conference of the United Nations, held in San Francisco from April 25 to June 26, 1945, representatives from Cuba, Mexico, and Panama proposed that a Declaration of Rights
and Duties of Nations and a Declaration of the Essential Rights of Man be developed and adopted.
Many people say that the Bill of Rights
, which is celebrating its 215th anniversary this year, is the most important part of America's most important document.
Mediation and brokerage were essential to the enactment of rights
and responsibilities--thus rights and responsibilities involved not only those who were trying to obtain or discharge them, but also a bevy of others interconnected through them who acted as networks or middle-men/women.
Historically, sometimes with sincere belief and sometimes with Machiavellian motives, those in power have often pointed to a god as the source of rights
. But Dershowitz quickly dismisses any claim that rights are divine, saying "God's law has been the source of justification for genocidal crusades, inquisitions, slavery, serfdom, monarchy, anti-Semitism, anti-Catholicism, bigotry against Muslims, genocide against Native Americans, homophobia, terrorism, and many other wrongs."
In a now-forgotten speech that Sunstein spotlights, FDR called for a new Bill of Rights
along the lines that Sunstein advocates.
However, they will have to be further developed if they are to meet the challenges presented by Western ideas of rights
and liberties, ideas shaped by the transformation of human thought and institutions by the ascendancy of secular humanism.
First, Baldwin states that there are "tensions" and "contradictions" that reduce the "persuasive force" of the Library Bill of Rights
. His article in this issue of Library Trends addresses this macro issue by treating three micro themes: (1) "deeply felt notions about intellectual freedom"; (2) "the more parochial interests of librarians"; and (3) "legal protection against government." This article primarily treats the first theme--i.e., deeply felt notions about intellectual freedom.
Reinforced by philosophers and by private property's role in creating an individualistic middle class and unprecedented prosperity, these attitudes became part of the Constitution's Bill of Rights
, a clause at the end of the Fifth Amendment:
Congress does not have the power, through simple legislation, to decimate the authority of the courts over issues dealing with the Bill of Rights
The Founding Fathers intentionally included this in the Bill of Rights
, because they had experienced the tyranny of the British government and wanted to make sure American citizens--both innocent and guilty--would be free from government abuses.
Justice Scalia's minimalist view of rights
, as reported above, gives cause for serious concern.