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The people who administer a company, create policies, and provide the support necessary to implement the owners' business objectives.


1. The persons or institutions that administer a company. That is, management has the responsibility to direct employees, set and enforce policies, and generally ensure that the company fulfills its goals (which management itself often sets). Management is responsible to the board of directors (of a publicly-traded company) and ultimately to the company's owners. In small companies, owners and managers are often the same people.

2. See: Asset management.


The process of organizing and directing human and physical resources within an ORGANIZATION so as to meet defined objectives. The key management roles are:
  1. planning how to carry out the various activities which are required to achieve the objective. This involves establishing an action programme (see BUSINESS PLAN) and an appropriate organization structure within which tasks can be subdivided (for example into production, personnel, marketing and finance); RESPONSIBILITY for them delegated; and PAY and reward systems instituted (see JOB DESIGN AND REDESIGN, WORK ORGANIZATION);
  2. CONTROL, by comparing current performance with that planned in order to monitor progress of the work. Such comparisons reveal where additional resources may be needed to achieve desired performance or when plans may need to be modified in the light of experience;
  3. COORDINATION of the tasks being undertaken, which involves synchronizing and balancing work loads and ensuring effective collaboration between the various DEPARTMENTS and GROUPS within the organization;
  4. MOTIVATION of the members of the organization, encouraging them to work effectively in performing their assigned task.

CLASSICAL MANAGEMENT THEORY portrayed management as a rational activity largely concerned with establishing routines and procedures for administering the work. More recently this emphasis has been questioned in a number of respects. Research has shown that much of the manager's working day is spent on tasks other than those suggested in this approach, for example attending retirement presentations, responding to telephone enquiries etc. Much of the manager's job involves ad hoc reactions to events. Other research has shown that managers ‘muddle through’, aiming at achieving satisfactory rather than optimum outcomes (see SATISFICING).

Recent writing on management has emphasized the LEADERSHIP aspect of the managerial function. The key issue here concerns the means by which managers can achieve effective performance from their subordinates. Two basic approaches are identified in the literature (on MANAGEMENT STYLE):

  1. task orientation, where managers' relationship with their subordinates is essentially directive, being primarily focused on getting the job done;
  2. people orientation, where managers show a greater concern for their subordinates' well-being, on the grounds that a contented workforce performs effectively.

Some believe that good leaders are born with certain personal qualities whilst others believe that these can be instilled through MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT. Whatever perspective is taken it should be remembered that leadership involves more than a leader: it also involves subordinates and a context. Good leadership is that which produces appropriate behaviour from others in particular situations. See ORGANIZATIONAL ANALYSIS, BOARD OF DIRECTORS.

References in periodicals archive ?
There are many reasons to develop and implement a vineyard nutrition management plan, and the most important is to optimize the amount of nutrients applied to the vineyard.
3% of respondents stated that they were satisfied with their current nutrition management practices (315 of 514), only 29.
General Nutrition Management in Patients Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus
Mary Donkersloot, a nutrition therapist at Personal Nutrition Management in Beverly Hills, concedes that smoothies are good as an occasional meal.
Proper nutrition management not only can prevent severe weight loss among HIV-positive patients, but improve quality of life and potentially save millions of dollars annually in treatment costs, according to Cade Fields Newman, a registered dietitian and director of services for The Cutting Edge Consulting Group.
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The backbone of a whitetail nutrition management plan involves providing high-quality natural forage evenly distributed across the landscape.
A directed education strategy could improve paramedics' knowledge of and attitudes toward nutrition management, which in turn could reduce nutritionrelated health risks associated with shiftwork in this population.
Muhammad Ibrahim discussed various issues related to nutrition management in salt affected soils in detail.
For dietitians, dietetic technicians, nutritionists, pediatricians, nurses, and students, Samour (nutrition services and dietetic internship program, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center) and King, a private practitioner, offer a textbook of 21 chapters by dietitians, nutritionists, and pediatricians on nutrition guidelines for children from preconception through adolescence, including assessment, normal growth, food hypersensitivities, weight management, genetic screening and nutrition management, inborn errors, developmental disabilities, enteral nutrition, acute medical conditions, cardiac and pulmonary issues, and other diseases.
PROGRESSIVE dairy farmer Michael Metcalf, of Kirkby Thore, near Penrith, has turned up the heat on farm recently through taking a new approach to both breeding and nutrition management.

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