Hence, with deterministic deployment method, 100% coverage can be obtained with minimal number of nodes. This kind of deployment does not suffer from the problem of same area being covered by more than one sensor and there will be no sensor nodes with least coverage of region of interest.
Thus, random deployment method is chosen for such applications, where, the nodes are deployed from aircraft randomly in the given region of interest.
But, once the sensor nodes are moved from their original random position to the optimal positions, there are chances that, same position/location may be covered by two or more sensors.
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This paper mainly studies the effectiveness of the routing algorithm based on Q-learning to balance the node energy of the WSN and improve the lifetime of the whole network.
Niu, "opology self-cure algorithm aiming at node failure problem in wireless sensor networks," Journal of Southeast University, vol.
The black arrows demonstrate the witness selection and the witness chain generation, and the blue solid circles represent the witnesses of a node. Similarly, the red arrows indicate the clone detection route establishment, and the red solid circles represent the cloned nodes.
The clone detection probability refers to whether any witness of a node can discover at least two nodes with the same ID but different positions (if exists) or not.
If M >K, the beacon node determines itself as a suspect beacon node.
where, [X.sub.i] ([x.sub.i], [y.sub.i] ) is the suspect beacon node, [X.sub.j] ([x.sub.j],[y.sub.j] ) is the other beacon node that can communicate with the suspect beacon node.