The left IAF on the posterior part of the neural arch
(superior to the convex inferior articular facet) showed an extension of the articular surface at its lower border, a shape apparently attributed to lumbar biomechanics.
The position of the neural arch
near the midpoint of the centrum excluded it from Titanosauriformes, which is characterized by anteriorly displaced neural arches
(e.g., Salgado et al., 1997; D'Emic, 2012).
Geringophis vertebrae are typical of many Eocene and Oligocene erycine snakes in that they are relatively small, short, and wide, but they are unique among these boids in having flattened neural arches
, relatively high and long neural spines that are swollen dorsally, and well-developed hemal keels and subcentral ridges (Holman, 8; Sullivan and Holman, 9).
Given the continuing interest in a fishery (commercial and sport) and potential conservation concerns, we investigated the use of neural arches
as an alternate body structure to use for the age determination of sixgill sharks.
harteri in having higher neural spines and more vaulted neural arches
. The species presently occurs in the Tonk Creek area (Dixon 1987).
The atlas (C1) and the axis (C2) are most unique in design, with C3-C6 being more similar in anatomy.[6-11] In general, cervical vertebrae have a small body in comparison to a larger neural arch
. (See Figs.
The vertebrae from Fuencaliente de Medinaceli are not compatible with the members of Pistosauroidea, which present well-developed transverse processes in the neural arches
(Sues, 1987; Sander et al., 1997; Rieppel, 2000; Ma et al., 2015).
The overall shape (squareness), robustness, and low neural arch
of the vertebra are characteristic of the genus Crotalus.
The diapophyseal processes are associated with the neural arch
, located on the base of the neural spine.
Like most vertebrae of Syngnathus column, preural centra have dorsal neural arches
with a complex morphology.
Anterior cervical and precloacal (vertebrae lacking ventrolateral process) vertebrae are unlike the more numerous trunk vertebrae in that they are generally shorter with higher neural arches
and smaller condyles.
Holotype: MPT/I.G., a partial postcranial skeleton that comprises the neural arch
of the axis and another four cervical vertebrae, one centrum and some fragments of neural arches
of dorsal vertebrae, three vertebral centra and some fragments of neural spines of sacral vertebrae, nine anterior caudal vertebrae, cervical and dorsal rib fragments, five haemal arches, ossified tendon fragments, a proximal fragment of the right scapula and the incomplete left pelvic girdle represented by the anterior and dorsal part of the ilium, prepubis and a proximal fragment of the ischium (Figs.