12) Prior to implementing neoliberal
reforms, Chile followed the Latin America postwar paradigm of import-substituting industrialization (ISI).
The flexibility of neoliberal
practice vis-a-vis ideology is posing particular quandaries for theorists as governments' responses to the current crisis evolve.
Sierra does not agree with this analysis and says plans were drawn up beforehand to strengthen the international market, for which it was necessary to overcome the neoliberal
model's flaws and create governments that, under the facade of "progressive governments," better serve the interests of international capital.
Moreover, indigenous peoples suffered some of the worst effects of neoliberal
assumptions have implicitly guided many recent national and international education reforms (Apple, 2006; Cuban, 2004; Torres, 2005).
Sanin examines three sectors; health, land distribution, and decentralisation, lie argues that the neoliberal
policies shook the established institutions and altered the room for negotiation and organised crime.
The key proposition is that union leaders have accepted a neoliberal
agenda that is counter to their interests and that of their members.
economics relies on the values of choice and competition, rather than values of equity and sustainability, to accomplish its goals.
But we also know that, though expediency may lead us to abandon any or all of the tenets of neoliberal
orthodoxy (fiscal discipline, free trade, deregulation, etc.
Finally, the retreat of the welfare state under neoliberalism and the "penalization of welfare" have meant fewer community programs and opportunities for young people and a restrictive tethering of remaining programs to neoliberal
standards, vocabularies, and assessments (Gray 2013; Myers and Goddard, this volume; Wacquant 2009).
If indeed apartheid is for one moment rated as the second most bodily atrocious historical experience, next to Nazi Germany and the Holocaust in the 20th century, then the designation "global Apartheid" to the dominant and hegemonic neoliberal
order must be affirmed as correct.
His last book is "Social Movements in an Era of Neoliberal
Globalization: The People Strike Back" which he has co-written with the fellow Canadian scholar James Petras in 2010.