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The norms and shared attitudes that pervade an ORGANIZATION. It may be expressed in symbols, rituals and the language used by organization members. It thus constitutes the distinctive characteristics of an organization. In recent years managerial interest in organizational culture has grown enormously It is believed that the culture will influence how individuals behave at work and hence will affect both individual and organizational performances.

A number of types of culture have been identified in this respect:

  1. power culture, characterized by an emphasis on personal charisma, risk-taking and a low level of respect for procedures. This might be found in a small entrepreneurial organization, where power tends to be concentrated in the entrepreneur;
  2. rôle culture, characterized by well-defined procedures and job roles, and an emphasis on conformity. This might be found in an established BUREAUCRACY for example government administration;
  3. task culture, characterized by an emphasis on problem-solving by expert teams. Groups are formed to deal with particular problems. Once the task is completed the group may be disbanded. Here the culture is one which attaches importance to expertise, though in fact expertise may be less developed in organizations of this sort than in role culture organizations, where job roles are more specialized. Task culture places a much greater emphasis on flexibility and creativity than does role culture;
  4. person-oriented culture, characterized by an emphasis on meeting the needs of individuals in the organization. This is often found in small, ‘alternative’ organizations. It may also characterize small organizations composed mainly of PROFESSIONALS, such as small consultancy companies, where it is deemed important that individuals be given some freedom to shape their jobs so that they can pursue particular professional or other ‘acceptable’ outside interests (for example, being a local councillor).

A concern of many managers in recent years has been that the prevailing culture of their organization is inappropriate, or even obstructive, to a desired change in objectives. For instance, a role culture, where jobs are specialized and well-defined, could obstruct creativity and hence prevent an organization from becoming more entrepreneurial. As a result much attention recently has been devoted to changing cultures. It is doubtful, however, whether managers can actually achieve dramatic cultural change in the short term. Culture is influenced by a complex of factors, such as the character and background of the workforce, many of which are to some extent independent of managerial action. See MANAGEMENT STYLE. MECHANISTIC AND ORGANISMIC, EXCELLENCE CULTURE.

Collins Dictionary of Business, 3rd ed. © 2002, 2005 C Pass, B Lowes, A Pendleton, L Chadwick, D O’Reilly and M Afferson
References in periodicals archive ?
Pendse et al [4] have proved in their study 50% wounds treated with phenytoin had negative bacterial culture on 7th day of treatment, whereas in the control group only 17% had negative culture.
Social marketing shapes popular culture and directs it towards sustainability by spreading awareness on the negative culture of consumerism.
X-ray lesions in smear negative culture positive patients vary from minimal to advanced cavitations17-20.
"The right work culture can help the younger generation benefit from economic opportunities; however, considering that work culture is intrinsically connected to lifestyle and traditional attitudes, the challenge before the region is to overcome any semblance of negative culture and inculcate the spirit of positive culture," said Ahmad Obaid Al Mansoori, member of the Federal National Council.
All agreed that the biggest obstruction to having a good planning system in Wales was the negative culture in Local Planning Authorities.
He blamed that in the past, Musharraf and his cronies patronized the qabza groups like industry but Pakistan Muslim League-N is returning a prosperous Pakistan to the youth by eliminating negative culture of qabza forever.
Patients with positive stool culture compared to a negative culture were found to have a younger mean age (43 vs.
The four important checklist items predictive of a negative culture were six years of age or older, seen April through November, no watery discharge, and no "glue eye" in the morning.
Reporting back, PNA Anne Brinkman said themes to emerge were knowledge deficits, skill mix, a sense of feeling under-valued and powerless, a negative culture and lack of managerial support.
The Business Energy Survey found that Welsh managers put business ahead of family, and work within a negative culture.
189 (40.6) [beta]-Hemolytic streptococci 48 (10.3) [gamma] Streptococci 45 (9.7) Other 28 (6.0) Negative culture 80 (17.2) Aerobic and anaerobic (n = 13) Anaerobic gram-negative rods 5 (38.5) Porphyromonas spp.
Second, culture methods should be validated to ensure that residual antimicrobials do not result in false negative culture results (5).