We call "horizontal integration" in the context of the Quintuple Helix ecosystem, when an extremely wide range of goods and services are produced from a common basis (strong mutualization
of means and resources) by various stakeholders belonging to the same ecosystem.
"But we're unlikely to see a wholesale wave of mutualizations
I believe the current solution provides a clear path for content providers to decide on the encryption modes and use them in their deployments." While content producers indeed have the choice to use either AES CBCs encryption scheme (mapped to the cbcs CMAF Presentation Profile) in order to support Apple FairPlay DRM, or counter mode (CTR)-based CMAF Common Encryption (CENC) Presentation Profile for most of other DRM solutions like Widevine and PlayReady, this situation basically hinders mutualization
of the segments and does not really provide a definitive advantage over the current combo of HLS TS and DASH ISO-BMFF.
(17) Some firms change organizational forms and ownership structures during the sample period, through mutualization
, demutualization, or going public.
151, 210 (2011) (arguing that a systemic risk fund "amounts to a mutualization
of risk that should encourage more cautious firms to press regulators to rein in firms and practices that pose systemic risks").
These rules could include minimum margins, creation of a participant fund (with contributions from dealers, investors, or both), loss mutualization
, or the passing of losses to the original tri-party repo investor post liquidation.
Building on critical size to lower costs and boost operating margins drives operators to merge or cooperate via mutualization
and Ran-sharing agreements.
Similarly, Germany has so far kept out of the negotiating agenda proposals which would have satisfied the preferences of the Mediterranean countries (France included), such as a partial mutualization
of debt (in the form of Eurobonds or a Redemption Fund), a EZ fiscal capacity to deal with asymmetric shocks or a strategy to smoothly absorb with legacy assets in the financial system (only in 2015, when the Juncker Commission took office, it did accept the launch of a limited pan-European Investment Plan, the so-called Juncker Plan).
He said that like elsewhere in the world, Pakistan was also pursuing Mutualization
Act so that independent management should manage the stock exchanges adding that commercial and management wings would operate separately and those having 40 per cent shares and experience of running stock exchanges would be given the management.
required all CMs to comply with risk controls to limit the extent to which the trading activities of any individual CM could expose other CMs to potential losses.
It needs to be made clear that this situation should not be confused with the question of debt mutualization