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the force or process which impels people to behave in the way that they do. In a work setting, motivation can be viewed as that which determines whether workers expend the degree of effort necessary to achieve required task objectives. In OCCUPATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY two basic conceptions of motivation can be discerned: ‘needs’ theory and ‘expectancy’ theory Possibly the best known of the former is the ‘hierarchy of needs’ identified by Abraham Maslow (1908-70). He argued that individuals have intrinsic needs which they are impelled to seek to satisfy. These needs, which are ordered in a hierarchy are physical needs (food, warmth, shelter), security needs (safety, home), ego needs (esteem, status) and self-actualization needs (the realization of individual potential). Initially, the lower order needs such as safety determine behaviour but once these are satisfied higher order needs come to dominate. Maslow's theory has been widely criticized, however, for assuming that such needs are universal and that they are always ordered in this particular hierarchy.

Other needs theories include Herzberg's ‘Two Factor Theory of Motivation’. He argued that people are motivated by two kinds of need: hygiene factors (those basic needs such as shelter which, if not satisfied, lead to unhappiness but whose satisfaction does not in itself lead to happiness); and motivators (those higher order needs which when satisfied lead to contentment). The importance of this theory in a work setting is its insistence that managers have to ensure that both hygiene factors (i.e. pay, working conditions) and motivation (i.e. the need for personal fulfilment) are satisfied for a workforce to be content and highly motivated.

A further ‘needs’ theory is the ERG (Existence, Relatedness and Growth) theory of Clayton Alderfer (1940 -). Like Maslow he suggests that there is a hierarchy of needs but that the less a high level need is satisfied the more important a lower level need becomes. Hence demands for more pay in fact really reflect a desire for work to be made more satisfying.

The main alternative approach to ‘needs’ theories is the ‘expectancy’ approach associated with Victor Vroom (1932 -). This suggests that individuals are motivated to act in certain ways not by some basic inner need but by the strength of the expectation that the action will achieve a result seen by them as desirable. The desire for a particular outcome is known as the ‘valence’. This theory is essentially a ‘process’ theory: it emphasizes the process of motivation rather than the nature or content of particular motivators. The strength of people's motivation will be determined by weighing up how much they want something and how far they believe a certain action will contribute to achieving it.

Collins Dictionary of Business, 3rd ed. © 2002, 2005 C Pass, B Lowes, A Pendleton, L Chadwick, D O’Reilly and M Afferson
References in periodicals archive ?
There are many theories on motivation; some focus on quality of motivation and others on quantity.
However, literature explains that students' motivation can change with time and experiences with the environment.
Many theories on motivation and engagement provide helpful frameworks researching academic motivation and engagement in educational settings.
There are different levels (low to high) and types (intrinsic, extrinsic, and amotivation) of motivation. Intrinsic motivation refers to a desire to engage in a task derived from individual's interest or pure pleasure, whereas extrinsic motivation refers that individuals engage in tasks due to external reinforcements or rewards, such as wealth, power, fame, and popularity (Trevino & DeFreitas, 2014).
Being physically active is a lifestyle option for most people and it is important for researchers to discover more about these choices below the wide umbrella of motivation. There is a huge variety of motivation levels between people, starting from the people who have a lack of any kind of motivation to engage in any form of physical activity and ending with the people who exercise for their inherent interest and enjoyment of the activity itself (Dacey et al., 2008).
It was found that intrinsic motivation of teachers was having strong correlation with academic achievement of the students.
(2001) "Teachers' Motivation to Participate in Training and to Implement Innovations." Teaching and Teacher Education 39.
Motivation refers to the reasons for specific behavior (Lai, 2011).
Exploring the relationship between language motivation and language anxiety and their combined effects on language acquisition will help language teachers and researchers clarify the significance of these two variables in language pedagogy.
Nevertheless, there is no single recipe to motivate employees, as empirical data recommends striking a balance between extrinsic and intrinsic motivation. Research also reveals that intrinsic motivation is missing in most of the managers' tool kit when dealing with employees.
Meanwhile, numerous studies have shown that the current level of employees' motivation to undertake entrepreneurship and innovative behaviour is low.