motivation

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motivation

the force or process which impels people to behave in the way that they do. In a work setting, motivation can be viewed as that which determines whether workers expend the degree of effort necessary to achieve required task objectives. In OCCUPATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY two basic conceptions of motivation can be discerned: ‘needs’ theory and ‘expectancy’ theory Possibly the best known of the former is the ‘hierarchy of needs’ identified by Abraham Maslow (1908-70). He argued that individuals have intrinsic needs which they are impelled to seek to satisfy. These needs, which are ordered in a hierarchy are physical needs (food, warmth, shelter), security needs (safety, home), ego needs (esteem, status) and self-actualization needs (the realization of individual potential). Initially, the lower order needs such as safety determine behaviour but once these are satisfied higher order needs come to dominate. Maslow's theory has been widely criticized, however, for assuming that such needs are universal and that they are always ordered in this particular hierarchy.

Other needs theories include Herzberg's ‘Two Factor Theory of Motivation’. He argued that people are motivated by two kinds of need: hygiene factors (those basic needs such as shelter which, if not satisfied, lead to unhappiness but whose satisfaction does not in itself lead to happiness); and motivators (those higher order needs which when satisfied lead to contentment). The importance of this theory in a work setting is its insistence that managers have to ensure that both hygiene factors (i.e. pay, working conditions) and motivation (i.e. the need for personal fulfilment) are satisfied for a workforce to be content and highly motivated.

A further ‘needs’ theory is the ERG (Existence, Relatedness and Growth) theory of Clayton Alderfer (1940 -). Like Maslow he suggests that there is a hierarchy of needs but that the less a high level need is satisfied the more important a lower level need becomes. Hence demands for more pay in fact really reflect a desire for work to be made more satisfying.

The main alternative approach to ‘needs’ theories is the ‘expectancy’ approach associated with Victor Vroom (1932 -). This suggests that individuals are motivated to act in certain ways not by some basic inner need but by the strength of the expectation that the action will achieve a result seen by them as desirable. The desire for a particular outcome is known as the ‘valence’. This theory is essentially a ‘process’ theory: it emphasizes the process of motivation rather than the nature or content of particular motivators. The strength of people's motivation will be determined by weighing up how much they want something and how far they believe a certain action will contribute to achieving it.

References in periodicals archive ?
4) aptly put it, commitment is 'motivationally unrelated to the agent's welfare, however broadly conceived' If we understand commitment in this way, we splice choices based on sympathy from those based on commitment, and the set of choices which are both based on sympathy and commitment thereby becomes empty.
Mentor observations verified that the teachers were engaged cognitively and behaviorally, motivationally and socially.
Results from the inductive qualitative analyses focused on four motivationally relevant constructs that emerged from the data.
If other-regarding normative judgments are motivationally inert, that strongly suggests that they are not desires.
More recent research further suggests that the LC plays a role in reward processing by integrating motivationally relevant information such as cue information and reward size [128].
(2007): "On the Philosophy/ Rhetoric Binaries: Or, Is Habermasian Discourse Motivationally Impotent?", Philosophy and Social Criticism, 33 (4), pp.
His individual-level values theory was mainly summarized as ten motivationally distinct value types and the latest more narrowly refined 19 value types, two higher-order dimensions, four guiding principles, and several instruments (i.e., Schwartz Value Survey (SVS)-56/57, Portrait Value Questionnaire (PVQ)-21, PVQ-40, PVQ-R).
Being motivationally challenged can be an advantage.
Guthrie and Wigfield (in Kamil, Mosenthal, Pearson, & Barr, 2014) for example, states that engaged learners coordinate their strategies (cognitively) within a supportive community (socially) in order to fulfil their goals (motivationally).
Any man-machine social interaction requires motivationally evolving social robots which can develop new motivations during its long term interactions (Manzotti and Tagliasco, 2005).
Motivationally, however, Oberg (2011) notes that there was a 'slight preference' (p.
For this reason, new approaches are trying to determine how learners can organize their learning meta-cognitively, motivationally and behaviorally (Zimmerman & Martinez-Pons, 1990).