Many previous studies have demonstrated how gene flow influences local or regional adaptation (Holt 1995, Dias 1996, Pulliam 1996, Mopper
This is evident in Stilbosis quadricustatella leafminers, which despite their vagility, become locally adapted to individual oak trees (Mopper
The concentrations of both free amino acids and free fatty acids in seawater vary from below detection ([is less than] fM) to low [Mu]M levels (Testerman, 1972; Bunde and Fried, 1978; Mopper
and Lindroth, 1982; Carlucci et al., 1984; Fuhrman and Bell, 1985; Laanbroek et al., 1985).
Weishaar JL, Aiken GR, Bergamaschi BA, Fram MS, Fugii R, Mopper
K (2003) Evaluation of specific ultraviolet absorbance as an indicator of the chemical composition and reactivity of dissolved organic carbon.
The mine distribution is determined by the oviposition preference of the adults (Mopper
et al., 1984).
Some field studies have reported that younger foliage is better for Lepidoptera (Futuyma and Wasserman 1980, Phillipson and Thomson 1983, Hunter 1992, Quiring 1992, Shepherd 1992, 1994, Mopper
and Simberloff 1995), while other field studies have found little effect of foliage age (Crawley and Achteruzzaman 1988, Hunter et al.
Other winners included John Joe Walsh's Derrishal Lord, Eugene O'Sullivan's The Mighty Mopper
, and Andrew Lee's Irish Money.
This is a common effect of herbivores in other woody plant species (Whitham and Mopper
In the late-larval stages, mines expand and become prominent, and the larvae are more vulnerable to natural enemies such as hymenopteran parasitoids and hymenopteran and avian predators (Mopper
The influence of herbivory on crown architecture and the amount of resources available will vary according to the type and amount of feeding by herbivores (Whitham and Mopper
1985, Haukioja et al.