Just before the election, the Carnegie Endowment Foundation, in a forum on 'Arab monarchies
confront the Arab spring' (22nd November, 2011) concluded that there were three unique qualities which characterise the Arab monarchies
From the 17th century (Great Britain) to the 19th century (France, Spain, Portugal, Brazil, Mexico) and to 20th century (Germany, Russia, Austria-Hungary, Yugoslavia, Ethiopia, China, Greece, Cambodia, Persia, Nepal, Egypt, Libya, Iraq), more monarchies
were toppled than rebuilt whenever their societies were fundamentally transformed.
While the author does identify major characteristics that influence the political actions of Arab monarchies
, the book does not always clearly differentiate between characteristics that apply only to Arab monarchies
and those that are common to all Arab regimes.
Britain's royal family is not the wealthiest of Europe's constitutional monarchies
Variation in the dependent variable comes with a discussion of the failed monarchies
in Libya and Afghanistan.
One observer of monarchies
in the developing world writing in the late 1960s concluded that their future was "bleak" and that "the key questions concern simply the scope of the violence and their demise and who wields the violence.
Other factors being equal, in monarchies
, public support for revolution was significantly less widespread, interpersonal trust was significantly higher, per capita wealth was significantly greater, income was significantly less concentrated, and the political system had been significantly more democratic during the 1970s.
There are six other monarchies
in the EU, if one includes the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, which are in the same situation.
This approach, which emphasizes the growth of repressive state policing and the preservation of conservative monarchies
, earned the German states in the 1850s and 1860s the label of reactionary.
He regarded monarchies
as the antithesis of what the U.
Why, then, has rule by kings or shaikhs survived in Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, Oman, Jordan and Morocco when monarchies
in Egypt, Iraq, Yemen, Libya, Afghanistan and Iran fell to military coups or popular revolutions?
James's view in The Trew Law of Free Monarchies
(1598) that the king's will is law, his subjects "being but his vassals" (15), clashed with the older idea of the mixed monarchy, kingly rule in concert with the people's rights and liberties.