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the process of extending and improving the SKILLS and knowledge of people so as to improve JOB performance. A distinction can be made between vocational training, i.e. the acquisition of specific occupational skills, and pre-vocational training, i.e. the development of awareness of the world of work and employment. Education develops those basic skills such as writing and numeracy which form the bedrock for more specialized occupational skills.

To determine what training is required in an organization or economy, it is beneficial to undertake a training needs analysis. As a first step the main goals or priorities have to be established; then it is necessary to consider what skills are necessary to achieve these objectives. These are compared with the existing stock of skills amongst workers. Any deficiency is referred to as a skills gap and represents the skills that should be provided by training. A comprehensive approach to training will involve a needs analysis, a programme to close this gap and a monitoring and evaluation process to determine whether it has been successful.

Although it is generally accepted that training improves job performance, UK employers are often reluctant to provide training. The UK in fact has a poor record compared with its main competitors such as Germany. Training in the UK is widely viewed as a cost rather than an investment, and one whose potential benefits are difficult to quantify on the balance sheet. Employers fear that employees, once trained, will leave or be poached for higher paid employment.

Traditionally, the training system in the UK was voluntarist (see VOLUNTARISM) in that the state had little role in directing the structures and content of training programmes and institutions. However, state intervention has grown in recent years. Currently, the system of vocational training is overseen by the recently-created national and local LEARNING AND SKILLS COUNCILS and the government has established a framework of vocational qualifications (see NATIONAL VOCATIONAL QUALIFICATION). There is also an emphasis on skill development and training amongst the unemployed in the Welfare-to-Work programme. Participants in this programme receive training as part of work placements. See MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT, ACCREDITATION OF EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING, ACCREDITATION OF PRIOR LEARNING, APPRENTICESHIP, NEW DEAL.


the process of extending and improving the SKILLS and KNOW-HOW of people so as to improve the performance of the LABOUR FORCE and thus enhance PRODUCTIVITY. A broad distinction can be made between ‘vocational training’, that is, training concerned with the acquisition of specific occupational skills, and ‘general education’, which develops those basic skills such as writing and numeracy that form the basis for the development of more specialized occupational skills.

Vocational training is provided by firms through apprenticeships (‘on-the-job’ training), in-company short courses, management development programmes, etc. Governments also sponsor and finance vocational training initiatives as well as undertaking responsibilities for the provision of general education. Currently the system of government vocational training is overseen by the recently created national and local LEARNING AND SKILLS COUNCILS, and the government has established a framework of vocational qualifications (National Vocational Qualifications - NVQs) to encourage training in transferable skills.

Under the NEW DEAL (1998), unemployed youths (in the age group 18–24) and the older long-term unemployed (aged 25 or over), receiving the JOBSEEKERS ALLOWANCE, can be placed on a one-year full-time training course. See INVESTORS IN PEOPLE, DEPARTMENT FOR EDUCATION AND SKILLS.

References in periodicals archive ?
The MOS meets the need for enduring mobility training with such offerings as the Aerial Port Operations Course, Mobile Command and Control Leadership Course, and Maintenance Supervision and Production Course, as well as upper-level programs such as the Advanced Logistics Readiness Officer Course and Advanced Study of Air Mobility, a one-year Intermediate Developmental Education program granting a master's degree in logistics to future mobility leaders.
By educating staff and scheduling for more routine toileting, as well as implementing more robust mobility training programs, elderly residents can achieve higher levels of continence.
Mobility training included subjects walking for 12 minutes on a course outfitted with parallel bars to practice stepping over 10 cm-high boards, traversing 3 steps, and walking laterally, all with handrail support.
Orientation and mobility training may be provided to students with visual impairments as part of their individual programs of special education and related services.
Rhondda Cynon Taf council has been carrying out mobility training for people with learning disabilities to help them use public transport and live as independently as possible.
TM] makes mobility training enjoyable for children and their facilitators.
Mike was nominated by his manager, Maureen Hughes, who praised his "first class" teaching in braille, keyboarding, touch typing and arranged mobility training for hundreds of visually impaired learners.
The centre will provide sporting activities, a drop-in centre, mobility training, social events, seminars and much more.
Resisting society's "attitude that placed a low ceiling and an empty future on the blind," he quickly mastered mobility training, studied animal husbandry and raised prize livestock, wrote and lectured about blindness and music, and began his literary career.
The risk of accidents is compounded, the report said, by a lack of training to get around safely and confidently after sight loss - 70% of the Welsh interviewees had never heard of mobility training, let alone received it.
Seventy-five per cent of the people asked had never heard of mobility training, which can help people recognise and negotiate obstacles, and less than 20 per cent said they had received such help.
Topographic city area maps for mobility training Topographic city area maps were produced to demonstrate how such maps could be used to enhance mobility by providing users with general knowledge of the surroundings in which they live or work.

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