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the process of extending and improving the SKILLS and knowledge of people so as to improve JOB performance. A distinction can be made between vocational training, i.e. the acquisition of specific occupational skills, and pre-vocational training, i.e. the development of awareness of the world of work and employment. Education develops those basic skills such as writing and numeracy which form the bedrock for more specialized occupational skills.

To determine what training is required in an organization or economy, it is beneficial to undertake a training needs analysis. As a first step the main goals or priorities have to be established; then it is necessary to consider what skills are necessary to achieve these objectives. These are compared with the existing stock of skills amongst workers. Any deficiency is referred to as a skills gap and represents the skills that should be provided by training. A comprehensive approach to training will involve a needs analysis, a programme to close this gap and a monitoring and evaluation process to determine whether it has been successful.

Although it is generally accepted that training improves job performance, UK employers are often reluctant to provide training. The UK in fact has a poor record compared with its main competitors such as Germany. Training in the UK is widely viewed as a cost rather than an investment, and one whose potential benefits are difficult to quantify on the balance sheet. Employers fear that employees, once trained, will leave or be poached for higher paid employment.

Traditionally, the training system in the UK was voluntarist (see VOLUNTARISM) in that the state had little role in directing the structures and content of training programmes and institutions. However, state intervention has grown in recent years. Currently, the system of vocational training is overseen by the recently-created national and local LEARNING AND SKILLS COUNCILS and the government has established a framework of vocational qualifications (see NATIONAL VOCATIONAL QUALIFICATION). There is also an emphasis on skill development and training amongst the unemployed in the Welfare-to-Work programme. Participants in this programme receive training as part of work placements. See MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT, ACCREDITATION OF EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING, ACCREDITATION OF PRIOR LEARNING, APPRENTICESHIP, NEW DEAL.

Collins Dictionary of Business, 3rd ed. © 2002, 2005 C Pass, B Lowes, A Pendleton, L Chadwick, D O’Reilly and M Afferson


the process of extending and improving the SKILLS and KNOW-HOW of people so as to improve the performance of the LABOUR FORCE and thus enhance PRODUCTIVITY. A broad distinction can be made between ‘vocational training’, that is, training concerned with the acquisition of specific occupational skills, and ‘general education’, which develops those basic skills such as writing and numeracy that form the basis for the development of more specialized occupational skills.

Vocational training is provided by firms through apprenticeships (‘on-the-job’ training), in-company short courses, management development programmes, etc. Governments also sponsor and finance vocational training initiatives as well as undertaking responsibilities for the provision of general education. Currently the system of government vocational training is overseen by the recently created national and local LEARNING AND SKILLS COUNCILS, and the government has established a framework of vocational qualifications (National Vocational Qualifications - NVQs) to encourage training in transferable skills.

Under the NEW DEAL (1998), unemployed youths (in the age group 18–24) and the older long-term unemployed (aged 25 or over), receiving the JOBSEEKERS ALLOWANCE, can be placed on a one-year full-time training course. See INVESTORS IN PEOPLE, DEPARTMENT FOR EDUCATION AND SKILLS.

Collins Dictionary of Economics, 4th ed. © C. Pass, B. Lowes, L. Davies 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Air Force C-130 Hercules during a mobility training class provided by the 818th Mobility Support Advisory Squadron to the Gabonese Air Force in Africa, June 20, 2016.
BPEI technicians and a team from Second Sight made adjustments to the patient's Argus II system, and orientation and mobility training under the guidance of Miami Lighthouse's certified O&M specialist subsequently began.
"Win or lose, I'm proud to be representing the North East." David, 42, has also been making great strides with his mobility training.
One of these services was mobility training, which brings me to the real point of what I am writing.
The programs will include on-the-job training in all aspects of vending facility operation for blind persons and upward mobility training for all blind licensees.
Composed of a mobility operations school (MOS) and an expeditionary operations school (EOS), the USAF EC meets both the steady-state training requirements for advanced mobility training and the need for rapidly emerging, war-fighter-centric, just-in-time (JIT) expeditionary skills training (fig.
A COMPREHENSIVE BALANCE AND MOBILITY TRAINING PROGRAM (0736067477, $59.95) includes a DVD video featuring testing procedures, training strategies and a sample class and provides a fine survey of a successful mobility training program no health collection should be without.
The awardees were honored for a wide range of transportation duties, including support for deployment readiness operations, ammunition and ordnance delivery, military airlift routing, logistics support, mobility training, personal property shipments, and petroleum movement.
Ex-military personnel from many conflicts, including Iraq and Afghanistan, will be given mobility training with canes, respite care and even holiday beds in Llandudno.
The other functions and services of the Directorate General of Special Education included assessment, diagnostic and referral services, provision of personal aids and appliances, specialized services for hearing assessment, language development and speech therapy, physiotherapy, Braille and mobility training, academic and education services, training in arts and crafts, curriculum development, model library facilities and field research.
Innovative mobility training tools provide LTC facilities with the capacity to effectively improve residents' ability to sit, stand, transfer, and walk.

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