Exposing the osteoclasts to millimolar
levels of (Ca.
Ascorbate infusions increased plasma ascorbate concentrations to millimolar
levels, concentrations in excess of those needed to saturate neutrophils and lymphocytes (13), and approaching those reported necessary for virucidal activity against the HIV virus (25) and toxicity against tumor cells (11).
concentrations of Ca were necessary for maximal attachment of Rhizobium meliloti to alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.
Earlier laboratory and greenhouse experimentation into the mechanisms of action of hydroquinone (HQ) has demonstrated that plants exposed to millimolar
concentrations exhibit changes in plant-water balance, photosynthesis, and ultimately plant growth (Barkosky et al.
2007, 2012) in contrast to the 1-3 millimolar
amounts of Asc in the main tissues in vivo (Bergsten et al.
14]C]-tyramine oxidation (mainly catalyzed by MAO-A, predominant in human adipocytes) at doses that are closer to the millimolar
than to the micromolar range, that is, levels that cannot be reached by nutritional intake.
Absorbance values of mixtures measuring at 370 (DNPH-incubated) and 280 (HCl-incubated) nm were converted into nmol carbonyl/mg protein with standard curve of BSA and millimolar
extinction coefficient (22.
By way of background, Levine and colleagues found that when IV AA is given, it bypasses tight-control and pharmacologic plasma levels are attained in millimolar
More detailed examination in this study shows that stimulation of chemoattraction is actually modulated by extracellular calcium in the millimolar
mungo inhibitors is in the millimolar
range (Cheung and Ng 2009).
Erythrocytes have millimolar
cytosolic ATP concentrations, so that even a small amount of hemolysis can significantly increase plasma ATP concentration.
This may be important in light of the fact that, at millimolar
concentrations, sodium ascorbate can generate cytotoxic levels of hydrogen peroxide (8, 9).