training

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training

the process of extending and improving the SKILLS and knowledge of people so as to improve JOB performance. A distinction can be made between vocational training, i.e. the acquisition of specific occupational skills, and pre-vocational training, i.e. the development of awareness of the world of work and employment. Education develops those basic skills such as writing and numeracy which form the bedrock for more specialized occupational skills.

To determine what training is required in an organization or economy, it is beneficial to undertake a training needs analysis. As a first step the main goals or priorities have to be established; then it is necessary to consider what skills are necessary to achieve these objectives. These are compared with the existing stock of skills amongst workers. Any deficiency is referred to as a skills gap and represents the skills that should be provided by training. A comprehensive approach to training will involve a needs analysis, a programme to close this gap and a monitoring and evaluation process to determine whether it has been successful.

Although it is generally accepted that training improves job performance, UK employers are often reluctant to provide training. The UK in fact has a poor record compared with its main competitors such as Germany. Training in the UK is widely viewed as a cost rather than an investment, and one whose potential benefits are difficult to quantify on the balance sheet. Employers fear that employees, once trained, will leave or be poached for higher paid employment.

Traditionally, the training system in the UK was voluntarist (see VOLUNTARISM) in that the state had little role in directing the structures and content of training programmes and institutions. However, state intervention has grown in recent years. Currently, the system of vocational training is overseen by the recently-created national and local LEARNING AND SKILLS COUNCILS and the government has established a framework of vocational qualifications (see NATIONAL VOCATIONAL QUALIFICATION). There is also an emphasis on skill development and training amongst the unemployed in the Welfare-to-Work programme. Participants in this programme receive training as part of work placements. See MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT, ACCREDITATION OF EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING, ACCREDITATION OF PRIOR LEARNING, APPRENTICESHIP, NEW DEAL.

training

the process of extending and improving the SKILLS and KNOW-HOW of people so as to improve the performance of the LABOUR FORCE and thus enhance PRODUCTIVITY. A broad distinction can be made between ‘vocational training’, that is, training concerned with the acquisition of specific occupational skills, and ‘general education’, which develops those basic skills such as writing and numeracy that form the basis for the development of more specialized occupational skills.

Vocational training is provided by firms through apprenticeships (‘on-the-job’ training), in-company short courses, management development programmes, etc. Governments also sponsor and finance vocational training initiatives as well as undertaking responsibilities for the provision of general education. Currently the system of government vocational training is overseen by the recently created national and local LEARNING AND SKILLS COUNCILS, and the government has established a framework of vocational qualifications (National Vocational Qualifications - NVQs) to encourage training in transferable skills.

Under the NEW DEAL (1998), unemployed youths (in the age group 18–24) and the older long-term unemployed (aged 25 or over), receiving the JOBSEEKERS ALLOWANCE, can be placed on a one-year full-time training course. See INVESTORS IN PEOPLE, DEPARTMENT FOR EDUCATION AND SKILLS.

References in periodicals archive ?
Working Memory Training for Healthy Older Adults: The Role of Individual Characteristics in Explaining Shortand Long-Term Gains.
A randomized clinical trial of Cogmed Working Memory Training in school-age children with ADHD: A replication in a diverse sample using a control condition.
Bezerianos, "Topological changes of the effective connectivity during the working memory training," in Proceedings of the 36th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC '14), pp.
Carretti, Caldarola, Tencati, and Cornoldi (2014), Loosli, Buschkuehl, Perrig, and Jaeggi (2012) and Witt (2011) also reported an improvement in mathematical and reading performance following working memory training in a group of children aged 9 to 11 years.
Tracy Packiam Alloway and Ross Alloway, a consultant in working memory training and developer of the Jungle Memory software, explain basics of working memory and describe techniques for helping students with learning problems, in this guide for K-12 teachers and other educators.
The significant FA increase in the white matter tracts around the left IPS and the left precuneus that was revealed by the TBSS analysis was consistent with previous findings that working memory training induces significant FA increases in younger adults [38].
Additionally, because this program was implemented as part of the regular curricular program each day, the school administration expected that all participants received working memory training. As a result, no control group was utilized in this project.
Over the summer, the district began implementing the program Cogmed Working Memory Training from Pearson in special education classrooms.
The research-based perspective highlights cognitive, neural and real-life changes measured in randomized clinical trials that compared a gist-reasoning strategy-training program to memory training in populations ranging from teenagers to healthy older adults, individuals with brain injury to those at-risk for Alzheimer's disease.
Remember the future: Working memory training decreases delay discounting among stimulant addicts.
I'm now trying to get a copy of "Moonwalking with Einstein: The Art and Science of Remembering Everything," a 2011 bestseller by Josh Foer, a forgetful science journalist who underwent memory training and became a finalist in the US Memory Championship.
* Those in the memory training group were taught strategies for remembering word lists and sequences of items, text material, and the main ideas and details of stories.