Even so, more than two million older people in Britain are entitled to means-tested
support of pounds 124 a week.
Income effects mean that people with incomes below A or higher than B* have less incentive to save when means-tested
retirement benefits are available than when they are not, while the reverse is true for people in the range AB*.
To re-inject fiscal discipline, a means-tested
lien could be placed on a person's estate for recovery of expenditures that exceeded his total contribution to Medicare.
Although few cities currently have direct responsibility for administering federal Medicaid or welfare programs, the major means-tested
federal safety net programs.
The combined effect of means-tested
transfers and federal taxes in 2015 was, on average, to increase income at the bottom of the income distribution and decrease income at the top of the distribution.
If you are on means-tested
benefits or low income, however, you may not have to pay.
The only principle really is that there will always need to be a judicious mixture of universal and means-tested
"But almost simultaneously, the Government is introducing a new and separate means test for child benefit which will work in a completely different way, as well as making the seventh existing means-tested
benefit - council tax benefit - much more complicated by asking every local authority in England to design its own scheme.
"This will materialise a few years down the track, when a large number of people discover that being auto-enrolled into Nest has merely resulted in a reduction in means-tested
benefits they would have received if they had opted out.
Pensioners are not the only people who feel the cold, and a fairer system would be some type of means-tested
Winter Fuel Payment for all low-income households, paid directly to the energy supplier.
Help the Aged is calling on the Government to tackle pensioner poverty by introducing a system of automatic payment of means-tested
benefits to ensure full take-up.
"The value of the basic state pension, even with contributions from a reformed second state pension, will not ensure that all contributors gain an income above means-tested