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Fig. 58 Matrix. The matrix structure.


an ORGANIZATION structure in which individuals report to managers in more than one DEPARTMENT or function. The simple CHAIN OF COMMAND found in the classic BUREAUCRACY is replaced by (potentially) a multiplicity of reporting relationships. This type of structure may characterize part of the organization – for project team management for instance, where a project manager assumes authority over team members drawn from a number of departments – or it may extend to the entire organization. See Fig. 58.

There is no standard form of matrix. Managers may have equal formal authority over subordinates or alternatively one of these may have primary authority with the others, assuming authority on particular issues, as in the dotted-line relationship (see ORGANIZATION CHART). The benefits of matrix organization are said to be that it facilitates interdepartmental coordination during innovation, and, by weakening departmental boundaries, encourages greater flexibility and creativity. However, many organizations that have assumed this form have found that the absence of clarity in lines of authority and responsibility can lead to inertia and conflict. See FUNCTIONAL STRUCTURE, PRODUCT-BASED STRUCTURE, CRITICAL FUNCTION STRUCTURE, CONCURRENT ENGINEERING.

Collins Dictionary of Business, 3rd ed. © 2002, 2005 C Pass, B Lowes, A Pendleton, L Chadwick, D O’Reilly and M Afferson
References in periodicals archive ?
Spontaneous calcification of arteries and cartilage in mice lacking matrix GLA protein. Nature 1997 Mar; 386(6620):78-81.
Molecular mechanisms mediating vascular calcification: role of matrix Gla protein. Nephrology (Carlton) 2006 Oct; 11(5):455-461.
Conserved phosphorylation of serines in the Ser-X-Glu/Ser(P) sequences of the vitamin K-dependent matrix Gla protein from shark, lamb, rat, cow, and human.
Nishimoto, "Matrix Gla protein C-terminal region binds to vitronectin.
Borras, "Matrix GLA protein function in human trabecular meshwork cells: inhibition of BMP2-induced calcification process," Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol.
Rannels, "Matrix GLA protein modulates branching morphogenesis in fetal rat lung," The American Journal of Physiology--Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology, vol.
Circulating uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein, a marker of vitamin K status, as a risk factor of cardiovascular disease.
The effect of menaquinone-7 supplementation on circulating species of matrix Gla protein. Atherosclerosis.
Another way matrix Gla proteins help protect against atherosclerosis is by inhibiting the production of inflammatory signaling molecules (cytokines), which contribute to plaque formation and calcification.

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