matrix


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Fig. 58 Matrix. The matrix structure.

matrix

an ORGANIZATION structure in which individuals report to managers in more than one DEPARTMENT or function. The simple CHAIN OF COMMAND found in the classic BUREAUCRACY is replaced by (potentially) a multiplicity of reporting relationships. This type of structure may characterize part of the organization – for project team management for instance, where a project manager assumes authority over team members drawn from a number of departments – or it may extend to the entire organization. See Fig. 58.

There is no standard form of matrix. Managers may have equal formal authority over subordinates or alternatively one of these may have primary authority with the others, assuming authority on particular issues, as in the dotted-line relationship (see ORGANIZATION CHART). The benefits of matrix organization are said to be that it facilitates interdepartmental coordination during innovation, and, by weakening departmental boundaries, encourages greater flexibility and creativity. However, many organizations that have assumed this form have found that the absence of clarity in lines of authority and responsibility can lead to inertia and conflict. See FUNCTIONAL STRUCTURE, PRODUCT-BASED STRUCTURE, CRITICAL FUNCTION STRUCTURE, CONCURRENT ENGINEERING.

References in periodicals archive ?
Matrix Server is both general purpose in its support of multiple mission-critical applications -- such as file serving, e-mail, and Web and media serving -- and is highly optimized for Oracle Database 10g and other Oracle databases.
One anonymous Matrix fan has incorporated a theory about the role of katakana in the machines' code into his or her "tribute" screenplay for Reloaded (which, I hasten to add, differs entirely from the actual movie: check it out at http://keanuweb.
While it may seem nothing is impossible for the ``Matrix'' makers, they could not clone Australian actor Hugo Weaving for ``The Matrix Reloaded's'' most eye-popping fight scene, the Burly Brawl, in which 100 exact replicas of Weaving's Agent Smith take on Keanu Reeves' hero Neo.
These cells sit on a laminin-rich matrix called the basement membrane, which separates them from the rest of the organ to which they belong.
Exhibit 1 below shows a strategic planning matrix designed specifically for CPA firms.