# matrix

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Fig. 58 Matrix. The matrix structure.

## matrix

an ORGANIZATION structure in which individuals report to managers in more than one DEPARTMENT or function. The simple CHAIN OF COMMAND found in the classic BUREAUCRACY is replaced by (potentially) a multiplicity of reporting relationships. This type of structure may characterize part of the organization – for project team management for instance, where a project manager assumes authority over team members drawn from a number of departments – or it may extend to the entire organization. See Fig. 58.

There is no standard form of matrix. Managers may have equal formal authority over subordinates or alternatively one of these may have primary authority with the others, assuming authority on particular issues, as in the dotted-line relationship (see ORGANIZATION CHART). The benefits of matrix organization are said to be that it facilitates interdepartmental coordination during innovation, and, by weakening departmental boundaries, encourages greater flexibility and creativity. However, many organizations that have assumed this form have found that the absence of clarity in lines of authority and responsibility can lead to inertia and conflict. See FUNCTIONAL STRUCTURE, PRODUCT-BASED STRUCTURE, CRITICAL FUNCTION STRUCTURE, CONCURRENT ENGINEERING.

Collins Dictionary of Business, 3rd ed. © 2002, 2005 C Pass, B Lowes, A Pendleton, L Chadwick, D O’Reilly and M Afferson
References in periodicals archive ?
Matrix A is expressed as a product of matrices multiplied in the order shown that contain measurements on a power cross and one factor matrix is the inverse of the other.
In [21, 29], some iterative methods were presented to solve Sylvester matrix equations over real matrices. In the methods [21, 29], matrix inversion is required in the first iteration.
Now, we define the Fourier matrix to establish the relationship of the circulant matrices.
Motivated by the work mentioned above and keeping the interests and wide applications of quaternion matrices in view (e.g., [32-45]), we, in this paper, consider an iterative algorithm for the following two problems.
In the revised model, all matrices and only the matrices are associated to the "high-high" combination of corporate integration and area diversification.
The middle section has 11 6x6 matrices, and the output section is just the inverse of the input with six 11x6 matrices.
Use the permutation matrices to reduce the matrix into a lower triangular matrix.
Now we define the Beta matrix function for positive stable matrices L and M as
If A(x) [approximately equal to] B(x) for the matrices (2), then [mathematical expression not reproducible], where the bracket (, ,) denotes the greatest common divisor.
From an algebraic perspective, a key object is the multiplicative semigroup of all square matrices of a given size over the tropical algebra.
There are many kinds of deterministic measurement matrices. The chaotic sequence has the property of pseudorandom, so it can be used for constructing the measurement matrix [15].

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