Management

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Management

The people who administer a company, create policies, and provide the support necessary to implement the owners' business objectives.

Management

1. The persons or institutions that administer a company. That is, management has the responsibility to direct employees, set and enforce policies, and generally ensure that the company fulfills its goals (which management itself often sets). Management is responsible to the board of directors (of a publicly-traded company) and ultimately to the company's owners. In small companies, owners and managers are often the same people.

2. See: Asset management.

management

The process of organizing and directing human and physical resources within an ORGANIZATION so as to meet defined objectives. The key management roles are:
  1. planning how to carry out the various activities which are required to achieve the objective. This involves establishing an action programme (see BUSINESS PLAN) and an appropriate organization structure within which tasks can be subdivided (for example into production, personnel, marketing and finance); RESPONSIBILITY for them delegated; and PAY and reward systems instituted (see JOB DESIGN AND REDESIGN, WORK ORGANIZATION);
  2. CONTROL, by comparing current performance with that planned in order to monitor progress of the work. Such comparisons reveal where additional resources may be needed to achieve desired performance or when plans may need to be modified in the light of experience;
  3. COORDINATION of the tasks being undertaken, which involves synchronizing and balancing work loads and ensuring effective collaboration between the various DEPARTMENTS and GROUPS within the organization;
  4. MOTIVATION of the members of the organization, encouraging them to work effectively in performing their assigned task.

CLASSICAL MANAGEMENT THEORY portrayed management as a rational activity largely concerned with establishing routines and procedures for administering the work. More recently this emphasis has been questioned in a number of respects. Research has shown that much of the manager's working day is spent on tasks other than those suggested in this approach, for example attending retirement presentations, responding to telephone enquiries etc. Much of the manager's job involves ad hoc reactions to events. Other research has shown that managers ‘muddle through’, aiming at achieving satisfactory rather than optimum outcomes (see SATISFICING).

Recent writing on management has emphasized the LEADERSHIP aspect of the managerial function. The key issue here concerns the means by which managers can achieve effective performance from their subordinates. Two basic approaches are identified in the literature (on MANAGEMENT STYLE):

  1. task orientation, where managers' relationship with their subordinates is essentially directive, being primarily focused on getting the job done;
  2. people orientation, where managers show a greater concern for their subordinates' well-being, on the grounds that a contented workforce performs effectively.

Some believe that good leaders are born with certain personal qualities whilst others believe that these can be instilled through MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT. Whatever perspective is taken it should be remembered that leadership involves more than a leader: it also involves subordinates and a context. Good leadership is that which produces appropriate behaviour from others in particular situations. See ORGANIZATIONAL ANALYSIS, BOARD OF DIRECTORS.

References in periodicals archive ?
Flinders Mayor Jane McNamara said: The Flinders Local Disaster Management Group is very proactive and has an established and very organised and structured emergency plan.
Hinchinbrook Mayor Ramon Jayo said: Hinchinbrook Shire Council and the Local Disaster Management Group have invested significant work and resources into developing outstanding disaster management arrangements, and we are pleased that the positive findings in the review reflect this effort.
Charters Towers Mayor Liz Schmidt said: The review has confirmed Charters Towers Regional Councils Local Disaster Management Group capability, and as a group we acknowledge that there is further work required particularly in respect to Relief and Recovery.
As non-executive the position does not have a service contract with Song Management Group. He or She will be paid a Director's fee of [pounds sterling]65,000 per annum plus bonuses as authorised by directors at the 2006 Annual General Meeting.
Song Management Group is committed to meeting policy requirements in markets both at home and overseas and any appointment will be made in the best interests of both clients and the company.
The managers that make up the top management group of a family business can be viewed as a social network.
Power is actualized when the founder (or one who represents and defends the founder's legacy) is central to the flow of information among members of the family business's top management group. In this context, much of the information from and to top management group members is channeled through the founder who "controls the agenda."
The second dimension, closeness centrality, captures an essence of independence or divisiveness (Freeman, 1979) that is maintained when the founder has a direct link with members of the top management group rather than through intermediaries (Bonacich, 1972).
The third dimension, connectivity centrality, indicates the extent to which the founder is able to influence the most "connected" members of the top management group. Watts and Strogatz (1998) have suggested it takes only a few well-placed connections to simplify communications in complex organizations.
Walla Walla Watershed Council will receive $100,000 to establish the Walla Walla Basin Watershed Management Group (Oregon)
Seven entities will receive $572,644 to further develop a cooperative watershed management group:
NBAD's Asset Management Group offers money market products, equity funds, structured products, portfolio services, hedge funds, and advisory.

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