Among the many beneficiaries of well managed earnings
are income to fund the establishment of national child development centers.
Even if the larger managed earnings
signal the firm's attractive investment opportunities (Linck et ah, 2013), creditors are less likely than stockholders to benefit from them as their payments are fixed and the new investment returns are uncertain.
For instance, highly managed earnings
can yield low-quality earnings (Lo, 2008, pp.121-151), as the "artificial" information may lead to an incorrect decision.
They found that small companies managed earnings
to avoid losses more frequently than large companies (Lee & Choi, 2002).
Sloan (1996), in the naive investor model, suggests "that investors 'fixate' on earnings, failing to distinguish fully between the different properties of the accrual and cash flow components of earnings." This view predicts that investors respond to the managed earnings
, which contains abnormal accruals, as if this level of earnings would persist in the future.
This is based on the tailwinds of managed earnings
and a US Fed that is reluctant to end the easy money despite the obvious need to do so.
We find that firms who managed earnings
before the adverse event had less negative reaction to the adverse event than those who did not.
H1: Unregulated companies managed earnings
and net assets to appear to be a more favorable investment.
In addition, many contracting incentives are tied directly or indirectly to earnings based measures which also provide strong incentives for managed earnings
If earnings are managed through Sales Revenues, then the Jones Model will remove part of the managed earnings
from the discretionary accruals.
Only 1,259 (43%) of 2,931 firms managed earnings
by choosing income decreasing reserve account changes.