As a consequence CD8+ T-cells and inflammatory cells (macrophages) release cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha, lymphotoxin
, and nitric oxide, which can lead to bystander killing of [beta]-cells .
Fontana, "Tumor necrosis factor [alpha] and lymphotoxin
[alpha] are not required for induction of acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis," Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol.
Upon recognition of virally infected tissue cells, viral-specific T cells then release cytotoxic granules such as granzymes and cytokines such as TNF-[alpha], IL-17, lymphotoxin
, and nitric oxide.
Two single-base polymorphisms in the human tumor necrosis factor locus of multiple sclerosis patients from the Russian population: NcoI-RFLP in the first intron of the human lymphotoxin
alpha gene correlates with the disease.
(45) GPI stimulates the production of TNF-[alpha] and lymphotoxin
which further cause upregulation of expression of cytoadherence receptors notably ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 on ECs.
This increased gene expression matters because it can cause white blood cells called mononuclear cells to produce far greater amounts of inflammatory factors like interleukin 4, LIGHT and lymphotoxin
beta receptor which contribute to allergic inflammation and other abnormalities in the bronchial passages in asthma.
Fiers, "Precursor structures and structure-function analysis of TNF and lymphotoxin
," Immunology Series, vol.
Hence, infliximab is more specific for TNF-[alpha], while etanercept acts more broadly by binding both TNF-[alpha] and lymphotoxin
. In our study, etanercept treatment not only reduced TNF-[alpha] levels but also decreased IL-6, IL-12, IL-13, and IL-17.
 report on another study which observed markedly upregulated genes including the growth factor/cytokine receptors MET (the hepatocyte growth factor receptor), FGFR3 (fibroblast growth factor receptor 3), LTBR (lymphotoxin
b receptor), and PDGFRB (platelet-derived growth factor receptor b) in 11 patients with follicular lymphoma.
In addition, the analyses of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and lymphotoxin
alpha (LTA) genes have recently revealed specific combinations of TNF, LTA, and HLA class I alleles that associate with DHF and production of LTA and TNF .
Leet al., "Geneticvariation in tumour necrosis factor and lymphotoxin
is not associated with endometriosis in an Australian sample, "Human Reproduction, vol.
Witte, "Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs and decreased risk of advanced prostate cancer: modification by lymphotoxin
alpha," American Journal of Epidemiology, vol.