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Since the free energy is negative in both cases, the silica lining will be reduced by carbon in the molten iron.
For example, in a 35-ton, 7000kW line frequency coreless induction furnace, the lining throughput was 8000 tons of gray iron and only 2600 tons of ductile base iron.
Employees determine if a lining requires a full patch, a top sleeve and bottom patch, or a reline based on furnace power readings taken during the week and on weekends.
On a typical Saturday, the furnace lining is measured for wear using a centering bar with a plumb bob attached to a string.
The third new Abex lining, SM FF, is recommended for a broad range of vocational applications with severe duty cycles.
Three new, highly effective, high-temperature heavy duty brake linings for trucks and trailers have been introduced by Abex(R), the commercial-vehicle industry's premier brand of linings, lined shoes, stop box kits and severe duty disc pads.
Therefore, careful attention and proper maintenance of a furnace's lining is vital to safe melting and holding.
Proper Installation - Proper lining installation is as important to a safe operation as refractory material selected.
Inductor lining wear occurs when the refractory is worn away by chemical reduction, by solutioning in other low melting point oxides and/or by other means.
Spalling occurs when layers of sintered refractory lining suddenly "break" from the refractory wall.
Foundrymen today are as serious about conserving power by minimizing heat loss through a refractory lining as were foundrymen during the previous energy crisis.
Each disadvantage was especially detrimental to Madison-Kipp's operation because the cyclical use of the ladle made the lining susceptible to thermal shock and the constant demand for molten aluminum greatly reduced the time in which to make repairs.