chain

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chain

A unit of measurement formerly used in surveying and still seen in deeds with old property descriptions.One chain equals 66 feet.

References in periodicals archive ?
The highlight this year is a 'sea of Beetle lights', where hundreds of these popular Volkswagen models will come together with light chains on Saturday evening.
The patient underwent a kidney biopsy in November 2017 that revealed HSP nephritis (HSPN, ISKD classified as type III, defined as focal hyperplasia and sclerosis), with isolated positive [kappa]-light chain and negative lambda light chain immunostaining (Figure 1).
"These patients are susceptible to a frequently fatal condition called light chain amyloidosis, in which parts of the body's own antibodies become misshapen and can accumulate in various organs, including the heart and kidneys," said study author Jan Bieschke from Washington University in St.
Only 55.0% of participant laboratories provide or suggest additional testing to exclude these rare disorders when only free light chains are observed by routine testing (Table 1, question D).
It occurs as a consequence of abnormal proliferation of plasma cells within the bone marrow that overproduce and release lambda, and, less often, kappa-free light chains which deposit in different tissues including the myocardium [5].
Huff-Lonergan, "Myosin light chain 1 release from myofibrillar fraction during postmortem aging is a potential indicator of proteolysis and tenderness of beef," Meat Science, vol.
One study on glomerular light chains in 65 patients with primary IgA nephropathy, but without other potentially contributing diseases, revealed that six cases (9.2%) had monoclonal IgA deposits (5 IgA-A type cases, 1 IgA-[kappa] case) [13].
Primary systemic amyloidosis (AL amyloidosis), which is usually associated with an underlying plasma cell dyscrasia, involves the deposition of insoluble monoclonal immunoglobulin light chains in the skin, muscles, connective tissues, blood vessel walls, peripheral nerves, heart, kidneys, gastro-intestinal tract, and lungs (2).
The immunodiagnostic tests recommended by the International Myeloma Working Group (IMWG) for the initial symptomatic screening of patients for suspected monoclonal gammopathy such as multiple myeloma include serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP), serum immunofixation, and serum free light chains (free kappa and free lambda with ratio).
Nonsecretory LPL constitutes less than 5% of cases of LPL and we are aware of only a few reports of WM focusing on the role of free light chains [1-3], which makes our case unique in that the patient did have elevated free kappa light chains and monoclonal IgM on serum immunofixation but lacked measureable monoclonal IgM on SPEP.
The accurate diagnosis of CA traditionally requires a gold standard endomyocardial biopsy (EMBx) with 1% risk of perforation if performed by skilled operators.2 The use of Congo red staining methods to diagnose CA and further subtyping with immunofixation, serum free light chains, and mass spectrometry help differentiate light chain amyloidosis (AL) from transthyretin amyloidosis (ATTR): the two most common types of CA.
Routine immunofixation electrophoresis of the serum and urine samples showed kappa light chains but was negative for anti IgG, A and M.