that a positive relationship existed between liberalness
The analysis indicates some support for hypothesis 2, which posited that the liberalness
of a state's government, as indicated by general policy tendencies, would relate more to the adoption of earlier state lotteries than later adoptions.
They support the notion that the liberalness
of the drinking environment as reflected in norms, use of alcohol in the home, and availability of drinking establishments affects drinking patterns.
This finding is consistent with the presence of an omitted-variable bias in the estimated effects using cross-sectional data, because I am unable to control for the social norms or "liberalness
" of SMSAs in the cross section.
Whitby and Gilliam (1991) provide evidence that racial composition did have such an effect in a transitional period but that by the 1980s the contribution of black voters to the party extended their influence beyond specific contexts, with the result being a generally greater liberalness
among southern Democrats not correlated to racial concentration.
"There is more liberalness
now, so it's also become easier to take pictures in public places, though not if you have a tripod!" Technology has also changed a lot since his last edition.
To control for this possibility (and also for the unobserved generosity or stinginess associated with a state's political climate), we include a vector of political variables, such as a dummy variable reflecting which party, if any, controls both chambers of the state legislature; a dummy variable for whether the governor is a Democrat; and an index constructed by the Americans for Democratic Action that measures the degree of political "liberalness
" in a state's U.S.
This scale possesses fairly high test-retest reliability (.72) and good discriminant validity as supported by low correlations with intelligence, social desirability, and political liberalness
(Lester & Bishop, 1997).
The scale is the median Poole and Rosenthal first dimension score (liberalness
or conservativism) for each delegation for each year (Poole and Rosenthal 1997; Poole 1998).
in Senate finance committee leadership may be reflected in accelerating monetary growth as the Fed responds to the legislative preferences of its oversight committee.