leadership

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Leadership

The stocks with the highest trading volume over a given period of time. Leadership may give an indication of future market movements. That is, a large amount of interest in certain stocks may mean that the market will continue to be interested in them. Leadership may be either good or bad for the market. For example, poor leadership may result from too much speculation, while solid leadership comes from sustainable investing practices. It is also called market leadership.

leadership

Leadershipclick for a larger image
Fig. 49 Leadership. Blake and Mouton's managerial grid.

leadership

the process of influencing others to achieve certain goals. Effective leadership is often seen as the outcome of leadership qualities (traits) which some people have and some do not. In this conception, leadership is often seen as an autocratic activity, and leadership qualities are thought to include strength of personality, charisma, etc. Unfortunately, research into associated traits has been unable to prove conclusively a positive relationship between aspects of personality and effective management.

Academic work on leadership then shifted its attention away from what leaders are to what managers actually do in leadership roles. Two basic approaches to leadership were identified and have formed the core of theories of leadership and MANAGEMENT STYLE ever since. These are concern for production, as exemplified by SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT, and concern for people, as found in HUMAN RELATIONS philosophy. In the former, managers concentrate on getting the job done and their leadership style is essentially directive. In the latter, managers devote their efforts to ensuring that their subordinates are satisfied in their jobs, on the basis that a contented worker is an effective one. These twin dimensions are combined together in the Managerial Grid, devised by Americans Robert Blake (1918 -) and Jane Mouton (1930 -), as shown in Fig. 49. In their view the most effective form of management is Team Management, where leaders show a marked concern for people and for getting the job done.

However, research findings do not fully support this contention, leading some analysts to suggest that the situation in which leadership occurs needs to be considered too. American writer Fred Fiedler (1922-) has suggested that the extent to which tasks are structured and the nature of the leader -subordinate relationship (including the power resources of the leader) influence the effectiveness of leadership styles. A task-oriented approach is most effective where tasks are either highly structured or fairly unstructured and where the leader-subordinate relationship is very good or very poor. It is in the middling positions that a people-oriented style is most effective. Fiedler believed that managers find it difficult to change their styles and therefore advocated that managers should attempt to modify the situation to enhance effectiveness. Other writers, however, have argued, in what has come to be known as ‘situational management’, that leaders should adapt their style to the demands of the situation. It has been suggested that a critical factor is the job ‘maturity’ of subordinates, i.e. their capacity to direct their own job performance. At low levels of maturity a task-orientation is most appropriate to provide direction. As maturity increases leaders should adopt a people-orientation to provide support whilst reducing the amount of task direction. As individuals reach full maturity the manager can reduce both task-and people-orientation and allow individuals to perform the job as they see fit. In a sense, at this point successful leadership is the absence of overt leadership.

References in periodicals archive ?
Alternatively, transformational leadership involves strong personal identification with a leader, presentation of a vision of the future that can be shared (Yammarino & Bass, 1990), and motivating followers beyond original expectations (Hartog et al., 1997).
The multifactor leadership questionnaire, known as the MLQ, is most commonly used to measure transformational and transactional leadership styles and has been used to investigate gender differences (Antonakis, Avolio, & Sivasubramaniam, 2003; Avolio, Bass, & Jung, 1999; Bass & Avolio, 1995).
In meta-analysis research on the differences in leadership between men and women, women exhibited more transformational leadership behaviors than men (Eagly, Johansesen-Schmidt, & van Engen, 2003) and adopted a more democratic or participative style and a less autocratic and directive style than men (van Engen, 2001).
According to Walumbwa, Wu, & Ojode (2004), the gender of the student impacts the perception of an instructor's leadership style.
Issues that seem especially relevant to the redesign of leadership preparation programs will be highlighted, especially those involving the trend toward incorporating more authentic, performance-based learning activities in formal educational programs.
Charles Parish Schools $50,000 to support this program, which was made available to teachers who were carefully selected based on a multi-stage screening process that assessed their vision of leadership, their promise as teacher leaders, and their eligibility for state certification.
The program itself attempted to fully integrate the study of school leadership with an array of field-based problem solving and school improvement activities that helped participants understand leadership and develop the ability to lead efforts to change and improve schools.
Leadership should be recognized the basis of progress worth of freedom.
Our vision is already prescribed which we just followed by leadership. Leadership directs the people to their right decorative promotion and ensured them political stability.
This study sought to determine the existence and type of leadership exhibited by National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division II soccer coaches in the southern region of the U.S.
Research Question 1: What is the predominant leadership style exhibited by NCAA Division II soccer coaches in the southern region of the U.S.?
Research Question 2: What is the relationship between coaches' leadership styles and the outcomes of extra effort, effectiveness, and satisfaction?

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