Our research shows that adjusting school start times so that high school students have the latest start time
would significantly increase achievement for older children at a very low academic cost for younger children--who will more than make up for this cost when they grow older.
The neutrosophic earliest and latest start time
as well as neutrosophic earliest and latest finish time of each activity for finding neutrosophic critical path of a project are derived by using forward pass and backward pass calculations as follows:
We also determine the latest start time of each activity j, [LST.sub.j], (j = 1,...,n + 1), using backward pass.
In this step the feasibility of the latest start time of the activities that were determined in the previous step is checked based on the precedence relations.
with those of the school with the latest start time
of 8:55 a.m.
Correspondingly, [C.sub.i max] equals the latest start time of the last operation task(i, [n.sujb.i]) plus the processing time of the operation.
The time window of the start time of an operation task(i, j) is [task(i, j).est, task(i, j).lst], in which task(i, j).est means the earliest start time and task(i, j).lst means the latest start time. The time window will be tightened during the constraint propagation process.
Correspondingly, the latest start time of each operation can be updated by formulae (16) and 17).
Generally, when the resource constraints are not considered, the start time of an activity can be scheduled within the time window between the earliest start time and the latest start time
. The difference between the latest start time
and the earliest start time is called the total float of the activity.
The class with the latest start time
, a freshman-level political science course starting at 7 p.m., was half-full at the beginning of last week - the latest numbers available.
With approximately 100,000 students per year divided into three tiers, it would cost roughly $150 per student each year to move each student in the two earliest start-time tiers to the latest start time
. In comparison, an experimental study of class sizes in Tennessee finds that reducing class size by one-third increases test scores by 4 percentile points in the first year at a cost of $2,151 per student per year (in 1996 dollars).