Jelalu, "Identification and prevalence of ixodid
tick in bovine at Bedele district, Oromiyia Regional State, Western Ethiopia," Journal of Parasitology and Vector Biology, vol.
(13) (1) A single infectious agent was detected in 55% of ticks; (2) two or more infectious agents were detected in 45% of ticks; (3) of these, 37% harbored two agents and 8% harbored 3 agents; (4) one male tick from Wisconsin harbored all four microorganisms; and (5) the highest rates of coinfections were by the ixodid
rickettsial endosymbiont and B.
Several characteristics of ticks make them outstanding vectors of pathogenic agents--the wide host range and tendency to feed on several hosts during life cycle ensures ample opportunity to acquire and transmit pathogens; hardiness and longevity enable them to survive long periods in unfavourable environmental conditions; high reproductive potential, ensuring maintenance of a large populations and a high frequency of host-vector contact; slow feeding habit and in the case of ixodids
, attachment with hosts for relatively longer periods, which allow sufficient time for pathogen acquisition and transmission, as well as tick dispersal by migrating or wandering hosts.
A survey of ixodid
ticks undertaken on crested francolin Dendroperdix sephaena (Smith, 1836) on the farm Sandspruit in the Waterberg, showed evidence of this species being prevalent in this area (Uys & Horak 2005).
Recently, borreliosis in urban centres and dissemination of ixodid
ticks on the territories of urban and semi-urban parks have received considerable attention (Daniel & Cerny, 1990; Gern et al., 1997; Junttila et al., 1999; Romanenko, 2002; Ephremova & Yakovich, 2009).
This place was selected because it has had high level of tick infestation historically, mainly Amblyomma cajennsense (a three-host ixodid
tick) and because it was there that the first Cuban cases of Lyme disease were serologically reported.
Virus transmission is mainly through the bite of infected Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks though a large number of other Ixodid
ticks are involved in the maintenance of the virus in nature.
It was given the common name, Damrain's northeast deer ixodid
, a name that was soon shortened to "deer tick." In the process of developing their species description, Speilman and coworkers examined tick specimens from other states, including one collected by W.S.
Strategies for development of vaccines for control of ixodid
Furthermore Haller's organ is present in ixodid
larvae but the tarsal pore organ is not present in the larva of ricinuleids.