investment

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Investment

The creation of more money through the use of capital.

Investment

The act of placing capital into a project or business with the intent of making a profit on the initial placing of capital. An investment may involve the extension of a loan or line of credit, which entitles one to repayment with interest, or it may involve buying an ownership stake in a business, with the hope that the business will become profitable. Investing may also involve buying a particular asset with the intent to resell it later for a higher price. Many types of investing exist, and each is subject to greater or lesser regulation in the jurisdiction in which it takes place. Legally, investing requires the existence and protection of individual property rights. Investing wisely requires a combination of astuteness, knowledge of the market, and timing.

investment

1. Property acquired for the purpose of producing income for its owner. Just as plants and equipment are investments for manufacturers, stocks and bonds are investments for individuals.
2. Expenditures made for income-producing assets.

investment

  1. physical or real investment: capital expenditure on the purchase of assets such as plant, machinery and equipment (FIXED CAPITAL assets) and STOCKS or INVENTORY (WORKING CAPITAL assets). Fixed capital investment is undertaken by firms, both to replace worn-out and obsolete capital items (see DEPRECIATION) and to increase the firm's total assets (see CAPITAL EMPLOYED), so as to enable it to produce a greater volume of products, and, by investing in the latest technology, to remain competitive. In aggregate terms, net additions to the country's CAPITAL STOCK increase the economy's productive capacity, thus making an important contribution to the achievement of higher rates of ECONOMIC GROWTH and improved living standards.
  2. financial investment: expenditure on the purchase of financial securities such as SHARES and BONDS. PORTFOLIO investment is undertaken by individuals, companies and financial institutions as a means of earning income in the form of dividend, interest and rent payments and through capital appreciation. See CAPITAL ALLOWANCES, ENTERPRISE INVESTMENT SCHEME, ENTERPRISE GRANT SCHEME, STOCK MARKET, FINANCIAL SYSTEM, FOREIGN INVESTMENT, SAVINGS, INVESTMENT INCENTIVE, INVESTMENT APPRAISAL, ACCOUNTING RETURN, PAYBACK METHOD, DISCOUNTED CASH FLOW.

investment

  1. expenditure on the purchase of FINANCIAL SECURITIES such as STOCKS and SHARES. Also called financial investment. PORTFOLIO investment is undertaken by persons, firms and financial institutions in the expectation of earning a return in the form of INTEREST or DIVIDENDS, or an appreciation in the capital value of the securities.
  2. capital expenditure on the purchase of physical ASSETS such as plant, machinery and equipment (FIXED INVESTMENT) and STOCKS (INVENTORY INVESTMENT), i.e.physical or real investment. In economic analysis, the term ‘investment’ relates specifically to physical investment. Physical investment creates new assets, thereby adding to the country's productive capacity, whereas financial investment only transfers the ownership of existing assets from one person or institution to another.
Investment requires that an amount of current CONSUMPTION is forgone (i.e. saved, see SAVINGS) so as to release the resources to finance it. Investment expenditure is a component of AGGREGATE DEMAND and an INJECTION into the CIRCULAR FLOW OF NATIONAL INCOME. In 2003, investment expenditure accounted for 13% of gross final expenditure (GFE) on domestically produced output (GFE minus imports = GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT). See Fig. 133 (b) , NATIONAL INCOME ACCOUNTS. In NATIONAL INCOME analysis, investment in the provision of SOCIAL PRODUCTS such as roads, hospitals and schools undertaken by the government is counted as part of GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURE; thus, investment expenditure is normally defined as consisting only of private sector investment spending.

Investment can be split up into gross and net investment:

  1. gross investment is the total amount of investment that is undertaken in an economy over a specified time period (usually one year);
  2. net investment is gross investment less replacement investment or CAPITAL CONSUMPTION, i.e. investment that is necessary to replace that part of the economy's existing capital stock that is used up in producing this year's output. (See DEPRECIATION 2.)

The amount of fixed investment undertaken is dependent on a number of factors other than capital consumption considerations. In national income analysis, the MARGINAL EFFICIENCY OF CAPITAL/INVESTMENT and the INTEREST RATE are important determinants of the level of investment.

The marginal efficiency of capital/investment itself is dependent upon business confidence and expectations about future demand levels and, therefore, plant utilization. The volatility of business expectations in the short run means that planned levels of fixed investment can vary significantly over time, leading to large changes in the demand for capital goods (see ACCELERATOR), that is, large fluctuations in the investment component of aggregate demand leading to larger fluctuations in output and employment through the MULTIPLIER effect (see BUSINESS CYCLE).

In order to stimulate investment, governments provide tax writeoffs on plant and equipment (see CAPITAL ALLOWANCES for details).

Similar considerations apply to inventory investment, with stock levels being increased or decreased over time with changing business expectations.

The long-term significance of investment lies in the contribution it makes to ECONOMIC GROWTH and economic prosperity. Building new factories, adding new machinery and equipment, and investing in new techniques and products enables industry to supply a greater quantity of more sophisticated products and services to the consuming public, while similar investments in the provision of social capital (schools, health, etc.) contribute vitally to the upgrading of general living standards.

At the micro-level a firm's investment decisions depend upon the profitability or cash flow implications of particular investment projects (see DISCOUNTED CASH FLOW) and are considered as part of its CAPITAL BUDGETING procedures. Compare DISINVESTMENT.

See CAPITAL ACCUMULATION, CAPITAL DEEPENING, CAPITAL GOODS, CAPITAL STOCK, CAPITAL WIDENING, INVESTMENT SCHEDULE, AUTONOMOUS INVESTMENT, INDUCED INVESTMENT, GROSS DOMESTIC-FIXED CAPITAL FORMATION, FOREIGN INVESTMENT, INVESTMENT INCENTIVES, INVESTMENT APPRAISAL, GREENFIELD INVESTMENT, RISK PREMIUM, BUSINESS EXPANSION SCHEME, ENTERPRISE INVESTMENT SCHEME, ENTERPRISE GRANT SCHEME.

References in periodicals archive ?
To help get the company off the ground, Slater has invested $130,000 so far in seed money, about one-third of which was equity and the rest convertible debt, Sparkman says; its last investment tranche of $30,000 was made in partnership with Cherrystone Angel Group.
Smaller endowments, on the other hand, will usually invest in pools organized by a real estate investment company.
The proposed regulations address an inappropriate income exclusion under the current regulations, occurring when a corporation borrows funds from a third party, then lends them to a related affiliate to invest in tax-exempt obligations.
Another major player in this new field is the Environmental Enterprises Assistance Fund (EEAF), which has invested more than $85 million to date in Latin America.
In advising the Joneses, it's important to remember that the longer clients have to invest the more the clock will make up for inevitable short-term losses.
Having a good surplus and long-term policy owners allows Northwestern Mutual to invest funds for a long period of time.
Warburg Pincus has approximately $12.4 billion under management with an additional $7.2 billion available to invest.
Vice president and treasurer of the university since 1995, Morrell oversees an $825 million endowment invested in everything from timberland and apartment buildings to Asian stocks and emerging market debt.
As time passes and the first bond matures, the client can invest in another 10-year bond and continue this cycle as long as he or she wants to hold domestic fixed income bonds.
Therefore, if an individual invests $1,000 in a fund that is now worth $1 million, he in essence owns one tenth of one percent of all the fund's securities.
Although there's no universal agenda for socially responsible investments, socially responsible investors generally agree that any company or product in which we invest should be environmentally sustainable and humane in its ultimate effect on society, and it should promote peace, not war.
Using the same discipline with which he wielded institutional investors' money while at Morgan Stanley, Gamble started The Prescott Group, a firm that invests its client's capital in a diverse array of property types, such as office, multifamily and retail.