In the present study, metabolism of alantolactone and isoalantolactone in vivo (urine, feces, bile, and plasma) and in vitro (gastric juice, intestinal juice
, fecal bacteria, and liver microsomes) were investigated.
Figure 9 reveals a swelling ratio comparison between alginate particles in gastric and intestinal juices
. A higher swelling ratio of the particles is seen in the intestinal than in the gastric cases.
The small intestine is the major site of probiotic action, and various enzymes, bile acids, and other substances in small intestinal juice
also inhibit probiotic growth.
In samples containing artificial intestinal juice
the availability of calcium ions in a base environment (57.2%) was marked by a further decrease.