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Import Certificate

A proposed system to lower the U.S. trade deficit. Under the system, exporters would be issued import certificates allowing them to import up to the total value they export. Exporters may then sell these certificates to importers, who need them to conduct their business. The concept would maximize the value of imports, allowing it to be no greater than the value of exports. While this is not technically a tariff, it has much the same effect. Import certificates were proposed by Warren Buffett in 2003.

Information Coefficient

A measure of the correlation between expected and actual returns. The IC is used internally within a firm to judge the performance of individual financial forecasters. The IC is measured on a scale between 0 to 1, with 1 indicating no difference between expected and actual returns. An analyst with a consistently high IC on his/her predictions will likely receive promotions and bonuses, while one with low information coefficients will likely lose his/her job.

Interest Cost (IC)

A comprehensive and time-adjusted measure of loan cost to the borrower.

IC on a Mortgage: IC is what economists call an “internal rate or return.” It takes account of all payments made by the borrower over the life of the loan relative to the cash received up front. On a mortgage, the cash received up front is the loan amount less all upfront fees paid by the borrower. On an ARM, IC captures the effect of interest rate changes on the monthly payment and the balance, but future rate changes must be assumed.

Formula: IC is (i) in the formula below:

L - F = P1 + P2/(1 + i)2 +… (Pn + Bn)/(1 + i)n

L = Loan amount

F = Points and all other upfront fees paid by the borrower P = Monthly payment

n = Month when the balance is prepaid in full

Bn = Balance in month n

IC Versus APR: IC differs from APR in the following ways: IC is measured over any time horizon, whereas APR assumes that all loans run to term. IC may be measured after taxes whereas APR is always measured before taxes. On an ARM, IC can be calculated on any interest rate scenario whereas APR always uses a no-change scenario.

References in periodicals archive ?
The prevalence and overlap of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome in men: Results of the RAND Interstitial Cystitis Epidemiology male study.
Hanno PM, Burks DA, Clemens JQ, et al; Interstitial Cystitis Guidelines Panel of the American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc.
Etiology, pathogenesis, and diagnosis of interstitial cystitis.
Data Source: Randomized trial conducted at 11 centers in the United States and Canada in 81 women with interstitial cystitis.
According to AkPharma executives, studies done several years ago have demonstrated that Prelief is an effective palliative with interstitial cystitis patients, the product's current largest market.
Many people with interstitial cystitis (IC) find that acidic foods and beverages cause a flare-up of symptoms, which include increased frequency and urgency of urination, accompanied by burning.
For samples from patients with interstitial cystitis and related disorders, it was demonstrated that expression of the hsp 60 and hsp 70 was reduced compared to that found in the urothelium of the normal bladder, whereas hsp 27 and hsc 70 expression were unaltered (9-11).
Interstitial cystitis (IC), or urethral or painful bladder syndrome (Mellon, 1993), is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the bladder which predominantly affects middle-aged women (Keay et al.
This booklet is for people who have interstitial cystitis and for their family, friends, and coworkers who want to understand the experiences and challenges associated with the disorder.
Interstitial cystitis is an uncommon bladder disease diagnosed more often in women than in men.

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