Instead, they lower the threshold of internalisation should market imperfections arise, such as hold-up situations motivated by asset specificity (Williamson 1985).
Increasing sales volume or market size (Buckley and Casson 1981): Growing market size may constitute an internalisation driver inasmuch as contractual operation methods (e.
In Johanson and Vahlne's model, internalisation comes about as a result of a learning process.
In general, the growth of an entrant MNE may free financial funds and human resources that enable internalisation, although the international management literature points to the many frictions that limit the exercise of such resources in an international context.
As can be seen in the table, the number of hours women spent watching music videos was the most consistent predictor of both their awareness and their internalisation of thinness norms.
Although women reported greater internalisation of the thin ideal body than men, total media consumption did not significantly differ as a function of gender.
Although men and women showed no notable media consumption trends, at least certain kinds of media consumption were correlated with increased awareness and internalisation of thinness ideals for both men and (to a greater extent) women, but only predicted body perceptions in the latter.
This model shall be accompanied by an impact analysis of the internalisation
of external costs for all modes of transport and a strategy for a stepwise implementation of the model for all modes of transport".
is Still General Theory of Foreign Direct Investment, Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, 121, 1985, pp.
The internalisation approach is not identical to a view of the multinational enterprise which is always and everywhere market-perfecting.
First, managers make internalisation decisions which determine the scale and scope of the firm.
In this context, internalisation is a strategic weapon.