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the force or process which impels people to behave in the way that they do. In a work setting, motivation can be viewed as that which determines whether workers expend the degree of effort necessary to achieve required task objectives. In OCCUPATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY two basic conceptions of motivation can be discerned: ‘needs’ theory and ‘expectancy’ theory Possibly the best known of the former is the ‘hierarchy of needs’ identified by Abraham Maslow (1908-70). He argued that individuals have intrinsic needs which they are impelled to seek to satisfy. These needs, which are ordered in a hierarchy are physical needs (food, warmth, shelter), security needs (safety, home), ego needs (esteem, status) and self-actualization needs (the realization of individual potential). Initially, the lower order needs such as safety determine behaviour but once these are satisfied higher order needs come to dominate. Maslow's theory has been widely criticized, however, for assuming that such needs are universal and that they are always ordered in this particular hierarchy.

Other needs theories include Herzberg's ‘Two Factor Theory of Motivation’. He argued that people are motivated by two kinds of need: hygiene factors (those basic needs such as shelter which, if not satisfied, lead to unhappiness but whose satisfaction does not in itself lead to happiness); and motivators (those higher order needs which when satisfied lead to contentment). The importance of this theory in a work setting is its insistence that managers have to ensure that both hygiene factors (i.e. pay, working conditions) and motivation (i.e. the need for personal fulfilment) are satisfied for a workforce to be content and highly motivated.

A further ‘needs’ theory is the ERG (Existence, Relatedness and Growth) theory of Clayton Alderfer (1940 -). Like Maslow he suggests that there is a hierarchy of needs but that the less a high level need is satisfied the more important a lower level need becomes. Hence demands for more pay in fact really reflect a desire for work to be made more satisfying.

The main alternative approach to ‘needs’ theories is the ‘expectancy’ approach associated with Victor Vroom (1932 -). This suggests that individuals are motivated to act in certain ways not by some basic inner need but by the strength of the expectation that the action will achieve a result seen by them as desirable. The desire for a particular outcome is known as the ‘valence’. This theory is essentially a ‘process’ theory: it emphasizes the process of motivation rather than the nature or content of particular motivators. The strength of people's motivation will be determined by weighing up how much they want something and how far they believe a certain action will contribute to achieving it.

References in periodicals archive ?
Deci, Koestner and Ryan (1999) found autonomy (the freedom to direct the course of one's life) to also be vital to internal motivation and learning.
Throughout the course of the CDE season, the use of both external and internal motivation was the key to the success of the teams.
Table 3: The relationship between internal motivation and utilization of HIV services Utilization of HIV/AIDS services Yes Never Total Internal motivation n % n % n % Strong 19 38 9 18 28 56 Weak 7 14 15 30 22 44 Total 26 52 24 48 50 100 Spearmen rho, p = 0.
Kilpatrick, Hebert, Jacobsen (2002), considered that external stimulus or awards were not more important than internal motivation of students for the formation of necessary motivation.
They know that they cannot force someone to be passionate and they understand the difference between external and internal motivation.
We usually discuss passion in terms of internal motivation.
As external stimulation increases, internal motivation decreases.
Internal motivation to respond without prejudice derives from internalized, personally important, non-prejudiced beliefs (Devine, Plant, Amodio, Harmon-Jones, & Vance, 2002).
Fourth, external measures do not work without internal motivation.
If kids are going to excel -- whether in academics, sports, theater or music -- they need an internal motivation, even a passion, to sustain them over the long run.
But, students who find internal motivation to engage in their learning tend to have the most lasting success.

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