75-359 ("The criteria for identifying wholly-owned instrumentalities
of states or of political subdivisions are set forth in Rev.
The FSIA carefully distinguishes foreign states from their agencies and instrumentalities
. Though the list of exceptions begins "[a] foreign state shall not be immune," id.
Also, in 2005, the department issued Advisory Opinion 2005-07A, which assumed that nonprofit organizations that contract with federal, state and local governments to provide health services to the public are not themselves governmental agencies or instrumentalities
and concluded that a de minimis number of the organizations' employees could participate in a state health plan without affecting that plan's status as governmental under ERISA Section 3(32).
(74) With regard to the statute's treatment of jurisdictional immunity, the commercial activities exception makes no distinction between the foreign state proper and its agencies and instrumentalities
. (75) Instead, it simply provides that qualified foreign states will not be afforded immunity in claims arising out of commercial acts having a satisfactory nexus to the United States.
Our six papers here probe some of the transport instrumentalities
that were parallel, overlapping, complementary and contradictory.
It should be noted that the Supreme Court has not adopted these changes to its Commerce Clause doctrine as it relates to "channels" and "instrumentalities
" of commerce, and Supreme Court dicta does not appear to support such a change.
More specifically, a company should consider the candidate's perceptions of expectancies, instrumentalities
, and valences against the organization's environment for the best "motivational fit."
David Chu, published a memorandum reminding defense agencies that DOD NAFIs may "not enter into contracts or agreements with DoD elements or other Federal Departments, Agencies or instrumentalities
for the provision of goods and services that will result in the loss of jobs created pursuant to the Randolph-Sheppard Act (RSA), Javits-Wagner O'Day (JWOD), or small business programs." (395)
This book looks at the philosophical consideration of Jewish education, its alternative visions, its purposes and instrumentalities
, the values it should serve, and the personal and social character it ought to foster.
According to VFW's National Veterans Service, the Pentagon must decide by mid-April whether ailments caused by Agent Orange or other "instrumentalities
of war" are covered by the special compensation, which it will begin paying in June.
On the one hand, formal rules give Congress regulatory authority over "channels" of commerce, "instrumentalities
" of commerce, and activities with "substantial commercial effects." On the other hand, Lopez and Morrison evince the desire to advance a federalist balance as a practical matter--not merely a formal one.
''Being key instrumentalities
of the government, their credit standing is constrained by that of the sovereign.''