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1. See: Security.

2. Any tool that a government may use to influence the economy. Common instruments include setting prevailing interest rates, raising or lowering taxes, and awarding contracts to the private sector to stimulate demand for goods and services.

3. See: Contract.
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References in periodicals archive ?
In English speaking countries such as Australia [7] and the UK [8]: loving, honest, helpful, broadminded and responsible are at the top of the hierarchy of instrumental values.
First, choices in reproduction have an instrumental value that makes the future more likely to be enjoyable for the person who has made the choice.
Terminal values such as justice, health, and satisfaction require series of instrumental values such as efficiency, quality, availability, and effectiveness.
The Instrumental Values of Preparing Future Citizens and Unique Individuals
A study by Elizur, Borg, Hunt, and Beck (1991) reflects continuation of low instrumental values of rewards such as pay benefits and working conditions.
The outlining of axiological formulas, in a similar mode with those of the model study with regard to axiological categories, level II of generality, respectively the positive appreciation of the instrumental values in relation with the finality values, level I of generality, indicates the fact that the formation background is ethnical and not professional.
Rokeach's model, from which the Rokeach Value Survey (RVS) is derived, is based on two sets of 18 values: terminal values or those end states that a person aspires to, and instrumental values or desired "modes of conduct".
The Rokeach values Survey is a 36 item questionnaire that was designed to measure specific belief systems or value orientations which relate to 18 end states of existence (terminal values) followed by 18 modes of conduct (instrumental values).
One set is called terminal values and the other is called instrumental values. The participants were asked to think about how much each value may act as a guiding principle in their lives and to rank all values according to their importance.
According to Rokeach (1973), instrumental values refer to an individual's conduct (e.g., being honest, ambitious) and terminal values refer to an individual's goals in life (e.g., happiness, freedom).