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Copyright © 2012, Campbell R. Harvey. All Rights Reserved.

Import Certificate

A proposed system to lower the U.S. trade deficit. Under the system, exporters would be issued import certificates allowing them to import up to the total value they export. Exporters may then sell these certificates to importers, who need them to conduct their business. The concept would maximize the value of imports, allowing it to be no greater than the value of exports. While this is not technically a tariff, it has much the same effect. Import certificates were proposed by Warren Buffett in 2003.

Information Coefficient

A measure of the correlation between expected and actual returns. The IC is used internally within a firm to judge the performance of individual financial forecasters. The IC is measured on a scale between 0 to 1, with 1 indicating no difference between expected and actual returns. An analyst with a consistently high IC on his/her predictions will likely receive promotions and bonuses, while one with low information coefficients will likely lose his/her job.
Farlex Financial Dictionary. © 2012 Farlex, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Interest Cost (IC)

A comprehensive and time-adjusted measure of loan cost to the borrower.

IC on a Mortgage: IC is what economists call an “internal rate or return.” It takes account of all payments made by the borrower over the life of the loan relative to the cash received up front. On a mortgage, the cash received up front is the loan amount less all upfront fees paid by the borrower. On an ARM, IC captures the effect of interest rate changes on the monthly payment and the balance, but future rate changes must be assumed.

Formula: IC is (i) in the formula below:

L - F = P1 + P2/(1 + i)2 +… (Pn + Bn)/(1 + i)n

L = Loan amount

F = Points and all other upfront fees paid by the borrower P = Monthly payment

n = Month when the balance is prepaid in full

Bn = Balance in month n

IC Versus APR: IC differs from APR in the following ways: IC is measured over any time horizon, whereas APR assumes that all loans run to term. IC may be measured after taxes whereas APR is always measured before taxes. On an ARM, IC can be calculated on any interest rate scenario whereas APR always uses a no-change scenario.

The Mortgage Encyclopedia. Copyright © 2004 by Jack Guttentag. Used with permission of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
As for the cytotoxicity assay, the oils of cumin, anise and fennel were not cytotoxic in the same minimum inhibitory concentrations found for the tested yeast Such results suggest that these oils showed to be promising models in the selection of natural products with antifungal activity, to prevent and treat fungal infections in oral tissue.
multocida with GIZ of 23.7, 19.9 mm and minimum inhibitory concentration 233.7, 285.7 g mL-1 (Table 5 and 6).
Minimum inhibitory concentrations (ppm) of the compounds against bacteria Minimum inhibitory concentrations (ppm) of the compounds Compounds Bacilius Staphylococcus E.
Raltegravir concentrations in CSF exceed the median inhibitory concentration.
The results of the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) presented in Table 2 showed that the root and leaf extracts had the lowest MIC of 6.25mg [mL.sup.-1] on Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
The high concentration of antibiotics in ototopicals--even the amount that makes it through the tube and into the middle ear and mastoid system--is almost always higher than the minimum inhibitory concentration of what our microbiology laboratories would characterize as "resistant strains" (a definition that is based on antibiotic levels that can be achieved by systemic therapy).
Bacterial found in the calves' feces were then isolated, and various tests, such as Minimum Inhibitory Concentration, Oxidase, and API tests were performed on them to identify the bacteria and test their resistant to ceftriaxone.
The minimum inhibitory concentration of honey was found to increase from 4% to 8% after exposure of honey to 46[grados]C for 8 h, and increase to 12% after exposure to 55[grados]C for 8 h [31].
The drug is bactericidal at concentrations equal to or slightly greater than the inhibitory concentration. When a 300 mg dose is administered directly into the lungs, the drug obtains concentrations greater than 10 times the minimum inhibitory concentration for most gram-negative organisms.
Rare cases of infection in the United States (1) have been caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci with reduced susceptibility to van comycin (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] [is greater than or equal to] 8 [micro] g/mL)(*)(2).
The paper describes a series of in vitro studies of pharmacodynamic parameters of exebacase against Staph aureus, including the postantibiotic effect, or PAE, postantibiotic sub-minimum inhibitory concentration, or MIC, effect and sub-MIC effect.

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