industrial relations

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industrial relations

  1. the general state of relationships between management, TRADE UNIONS and workforce.
  2. the process of determining rates of pay and conditions of employment by COLLECTIVE BARGAINING, the institutions and procedures in which this is done, and the relationships between the key people (for example SHOP STEWARDS and industrial relations managers) involved.

    Industrial relations can therefore refer to both the day-to-day relationship between workers and their supervisor and the more specialized activity of formal NEGOTIATIONS and CONSULTATION. The main subjects of industrial relations include PAY and conditions and, from the employers' perspective, achieving desired levels of productivity in part through the enforcement of work discipline. Industrial relations problems can arise where employees believe that too much effort is required from them for a given set of rewards or that work discipline is harsh or inequitable.

    Industrial relations is often also referred to as ‘labour relations’ or (more commonly today) ‘employee relations’. Many managers prefer the latter term since it is thought to avoid the connotations of conflict and trade unionism associated with both ‘industrial relations’ and ‘labour relations’.

    Within organizations, industrial relations management is often one of the duties of PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT, although in many cases negotiation over pay is done by managers whose primary responsibilities lie outside the field. Much of the day-to-day conduct of industrial relations is undertaken by LINE MANAGERS.

industrial relations

the relationships between employees and employers in terms of day-to-day worker-manager dealings and the more formal procedures and institutions through which the two groups determine PAY and conditions of employment. COLLECTIVE BARGAINING is the main means used to determine pay and conditions, and where employers and workers are unable to settle these matters through negotiation, INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES, in particular STRIKES and LOCK-OUTS, may ensue unless the two parties can find alternative means of settling their disputes, such as CONCILIATION, MEDIATION and ARBITRATION.

The general state of relationships between managers and their employees, often represented as a group by TRADE UNIONS, can have significant implications for the effectiveness and competitiveness of the organization and the general health of the economy Poor industrial relations can lead to an inefficient use of labour resources, with poor labour flexibility and RESTRICTIVE LABOUR PRACTICES (overmanning, demarcation restrictions) resulting in reduced PRODUCTIVITY. In addition, strikes involving the loss of working days can seriously disrupt production and lower output. The potential conflict between employers and workers over pay and employment conditions is part of the continuing ‘tug of war’ over the share of NATIONAL INCOME going to CAPITAL and LABOUR respectively.

Because of the importance of good industrial relations in enhancing economic performance, governments have attempted to foster collaborative arrangements between employers and employees through, for example, EMPLOYEE SHARE OWNERSHIP PLANS and WORKER PARTICIPATION.

References in periodicals archive ?
Despite positive beginnings, industrial relations analysis in the post-World War II period has for the most part not offered significant assistance to those scholars seeking to engage with the social protection context of labour markets.
Vernon, 56, began his career with LTV in 1967 as an industrial relations management trainee, following his graduation from the University of Pennsylvania.
They limit themselves to suggesting that, apart from cultural factors, the differences in the role of company headquarters in British and American firms may be due to: (1) different policies of expansion and patterns of ownership (2) different degrees of financial control as well as different methods and criteria for assessing performance (3) a different tradition and experience of collectiv bargaining resulting in a less highly developed sense of company industrial relations policy in British than in American firms (1974: 407).
The workshop touched upon related policy framework, practices and regulations, including employee engagement and practices; Trade Unions- pros and cons and the current status in Oman; Omani Labor Laws and whether they are biased in favour of employees or employers and if so do they act as a deterrent towards employment generation; general constraints in Oman towards development of a healthy industrial relations environment; training and development; and the role of expatriate manpower in influencing the general industrial relations situation in an organisation, both in favour and against a healthy work atmosphere.
PEIE workshop discusses industrial relations Muscat : As part of Oman Manufacturing Group (OMG) series of seminars for 2013, Public Establishment for Industrial Estates (PEIE) yesterday organised a workshop on industrial relations.
He added that the seminar will discuss vital issues, such as the social, economic and political environment, trade unions, laws, regulations and systems that regulate the industrial relations.
He was Foundation President of the Industrial Relations Society of Victoria in 1964 and Patron of the Society from 1988 to 1996.
One of the major functions of human resource management is to maintain smooth industrial relations (IR).
The diplomat pointed out the meeting focused on means to bolster trade and industrial relations and tourism between the two countries.
ISLAMABAD, March 16, 2012 (Balochistan Times): President Asif Ali Zardari, as advised by Prime Minister Syed Yousuf Raza Gilani, has assented to and signed the Industrial Relations Bill, 2012, which has now been enacted as a law.

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