Due to the varying input resistances and different switching behavior of the ICs on a board, various impedance targets need to be matched when designing a large PCB.
Common engineering practice is to build a library of known layer-stacks with defined impedance configurations over time, so designers can relate to set values and not have to develop a new layer structure every time.
However, the traditional impedance
ratio criterion is mainly suitable for the applications that characteristics of the power supply and load are voltage source , .
Although the best linearity of impedance
response was unexpectedly achieved without inorganic particles, ZnO nanoparticles were additionally deposited by electrospraying them onto 3% LiCl-PVDF, which did not show the best linearity, to confirm the influence of ZnO.
Usually, K= 0.25 is used in elastic impedance
The main reasons for performance anomalies are (1) leaks between backing cavities, (2) cavities with too large lateral dimensions (extended reaction), and (3) unsuitable MPP impedance
They observed significant variation of the impedance
, phase angle, real part, and imaginary part of the impedance
with different states of orange ripening.
Namely, the first component counteracted friction; another component compensated the inertia of the end-effector, links, and motorgear system; the last component generated the manipulator impedance
and achieved the flexibility.
In (2), the harmonic suppression bandwidth [DELTA][f.sub.SB] increases if the impedance
ratio K decreases or the magnitude difference between [Z.sub.p] and [Z.sub.s] increases.
Eddy current transformer model is usually employed to illustrate the relationships between the ECS impedance
and the parameters (resistance, inductance, etc.) of the induced eddy current loop in the tested ferromagnetic materials.
indicating that the induced odd mode current [J.sub.o] results in an equivalent magnetic polarization density [partial derivative]([[mu].sub.0]M)/[partial derivative]t, which leads to the tangential electric field discontinuity and the effective surface magnetic impedance
. The even mode current [J.sub.e] is associated with the surface electric impedance