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a person with a recognized set of skills and knowledge which qualifies them to practise a certain occupation. Usually this knowledge is gained from lengthy TRAINING and is certified by examination, often by a professional association. This pattern of entry to an occupation is similar to that of apprenticeships; however, the professions are usually understood to be those occupations which are located at the top of the occupational structure in terms of status, for example doctors, architects, lawyers etc. In so far as professional associations (for example the Law Society) stipulate the form and content of training and examination, they define the nature of the job tasks and the work standards that should be achieved and they control entry into the profession. Once individuals have been admitted to the profession it is customary in most instances for them to join the association. Professional associations are similar to craft unions (see TRADE UNION) in that they seek to maintain high incomes for their members by restricting entry to these occupations. Some associations (especially those governing public-sector professionals) are registered as trade unions and have become more similar to other unions in recent years, in that they have felt forced to mount industrial action or publicity campaigns to influence government and management policy decisions.

The notion of professionalism, i.e. that professional workers are special by virtue of their knowledge, has been much criticized in recent years. Critics have claimed that it is used to advance sectional interests, for example high income levels, and to prevent regulation by government or employers of the way tasks are carried out. Attempts have been made to weaken the power of certain professions; for instance, the recent trend in the UK Health Service for the allocation of resources to be determined on grounds of efficiency and effectiveness by management teams rather than on medical grounds as defined by doctors and consultants.

MANAGEMENT per se has generally not been viewed as a profession in the UK because there has been little agreement on the skills and knowledge which are integral to management, and no professional body has been able to enforce mini-mum standards. However, numerous associations concerned with particular aspects of management, for example the INSTITUTE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT, have identified training requirements and hold examinations in an attempt to achieve professional status. Recently the MANAGEMENT CHARTER initiative has attempted to identify core ‘competencies’ of management as a first step to creating a profession of management.

Collins Dictionary of Business, 3rd ed. © 2002, 2005 C Pass, B Lowes, A Pendleton, L Chadwick, D O’Reilly and M Afferson
References in periodicals archive ?
Most of the treatment centers that work with impaired professionals will attempt to work out a financial plan that allows for an affordable down payment and then monthly payments over an extended time period.
Following through on the best of intentions: Helping impaired professionals. Journal of Humanistic Education and Development, 34, 156-159.
HCC is a continuum of services treatment facility specializing in the care of impaired professionals, e.g.
Finally, be sure to consult with a trusted colleague before entering into a supervisory relationship with an impaired professional. Be prepared to seek ongoing consultation both from a fellow mental health professional and from a member of the legal community.
These articles indicate that impaired professionals come in all shapes and sizes and manifest their signs of impairment in a variety of ways.
Given my disappointment with recent contributions on the subject of impaired professionals, particularly the lack of any fundamentally new data or insights, I approached this book with low expectations.
The specific approach to the impaired professional is called intervention, and has been defined as "a structured method of penetrating the delusional system of chemically dependent persons to help them become aware of reality and to become willing to accept help." I The level of denial in the health care professional who is chemically dependent may be extreme, in that the threat of loss of both the caregiver function and professional status is profound.
One significant difference is that formal methods are used more often by hearing impaired professionals than by hearing professionals seeking employment in general business and that they confront more resistance from employers.
* Do you believe an impaired professional can return to higher levels of professionalism after treatment?
The Chapter XII Rules and Regulations for the Impaired Professional Diversion Program were repealed, effective June 1, 2008, as a result of the statutory change that requires the Board to engage in a competitive bidding process to select the vendor to provide the services of a "Nursing Peer Health Assistance or Nurse Alternative to Discipline Program." The competitive bidding process is underway at the present time and the Board hopes to have a contract in place with the selected vendor by June 1, 2008.
They also can work with impaired professional programs (IPPs) to ensure that doctors, lawyers, and others subject to disciplinary action by state licensing boards receive proper treatment, thereby minimizing the risks to patients and clients (not to mention employers).

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